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Biodiversity

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jem amazona

on 2 October 2014

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Transcript of Biodiversity

Biodiversity
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Statistics of Plant Diversity
8,000 species of flowering plants
4,500 species of non-flowering plants including algae, fungi, hepatics, mosses, and ferns.
30-40% are endemic and found nowhere else in the world.

Through the years man has utilized and exploited the natural habitats of native plants for his basic and other needs.

At the pace that the habitats are being destroyed or altered, it is feared that many plants species would have perished before the end of the century.
STATUS OF PLANTS IN THE WILD

It is the variety of plants and animals and other living things in a particular area.

Also, the number or abundance of different species living within a particular region.
Types of Biodiversity
Biological Diversity
Genetic Diversity
Species Diversity
Ecosystem Diversity
Features of Philippine Biodiversity
Is Biodiversity Important?
located within the "Coral Triangle," an area that boasts the highest biodiversity of any reef system on the planet.
Also known as "rainforests of the sea."
Facts & Figures: Plant Diversity
Philippine Laws on Biodiversity
Yes, it is!
Sustains our life support system

Contributes to environmental stability.

Provides options in the present and future in terms of bio-resources.
World's 2nd largest archipelago which includes more than 7,100 islands covering 297,179 sq.km.

One of 17 mega-diverse country which host 70-80% of the world's biodiversity.

It has more than 52,177 described species, half of which are endemic or found nowhere else in the world.
cosystem

Forest,coral,mangrove,freshwater,agricultural,urban,sea grass,soft bottom,marginal
lora and auna
vary by region due to a long history plate tectonic movement, rising and falling of sea levels.

- 167:102 mammals (61.1% endemism)
- 237:160 reptiles (67.5% endemism)
- 535:186 birds (34.8% endemism)
- 89:76 amphibians (85.4% endemism)
- 281:67 freshwater fishes (23.8% endemism)
- 9,253:6,091 plants (65.8% endemism)
Palawan Peacock-Pheasant
Polyplectron emphanum
Philippine Tarsier
Tarsius syrichta
Philippine Freshwater Crocodile
Crocodylus mindorensis
Palawan Horned Frog
Megophrys ligayae
Sinarapan
Mistichthys luzonensis
Philippine Teak
Tectona philippinensis
Percent of Endemism in Philippine Biodiversity
Threats to Philippine Biodiversity:
1. HABITAT FRAGMENTATION & DEGRADATION (deforestation, coastal infrastructure development)
2. OVERFISHING, HUNTING, POACHING
3. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
4. POLLUTION
5. INTRODUCTION OF NON-NATIVE SPECIES
Habitat Fragmentation and Degradation
Deforestation
- According to the World Wildlife Fund, only 3% of the original Philippine cover is left.
- The growing human population has resulted to increasing demand for land, turning rainforests into agricultural, residential, commercial, and industrial zones.
- The rainforests are continually threatened by agriculture and urbanization.
- Illegal logging is one of biggest problems faced by the Philippine rainforests
Coastal Infrastructure Development
- Coastal infrastructure developments have greatly damaged coral reefs, mangroves, and sea grasses.
- Coastal areas have been converted into beach resorts, commercial strips, residential areas, and even industrial zones.
- Philippine mangrove stand levels have been reduced to 36%
Habitat Fragmentation and Degradation
Overfishing, Hunting, & Poaching
- Filipino fishermen catch less today.
- The Asian Development Bank (ADB) says there has been a 90% drop in the quantity of marine organisms trawled in traditional fishing areas.
- Destructive fishing habits (e.g. use of dynamite) have also contributed to the diminishing fish stocks.
- Animals are hunted for food, for fur or leather, for medicine, and as trophies.
- The Philippine Eagle and the Calamian Deer are among the endangered species due to hunting
- Some animals are caught to be traded off.
Global Climate Change
- The species distribution of birds have shifted pole-wards and up-slopes, if the species cannot migrate.
- Coral bleaching occurs due to high temperatures.
- Fish population is in turn affected by the degradation of coastal habitats.
- There is a general decline in the populations of reptiles and amphibians.
- Increased risk of extinction for species, especially those with strict habitat requirements and restricted ranges.
- Increased pest and disease infestations in forests.
- Limited seedling survival due to changes in precipitation patterns.
- Increased vector-borne diseases
Pollution
- Only around 10% of the sewage in the Philippines is treated or disposed of in an environmentally sound manner.
- The rest of the sewage are dumped back to nature, usually the sea.
- Industrial wastes pollute rivers, coastal areas, lakes, and groundwater.
- One of the main pollutants is mercury from mining sites.
Introduction of Non-Native Species
- Non-native species are usually introduced for economic reasons.
- Some are accidentally introduced with the importation of other species.
- Non-native species compete for food and other resources with the native species.
- Janitor fish are now invading Philippines waterways, displacing native species.
- Water hyacinths were brought into the country to decorate fish ponds but they are now reproducing rapidly, clogging water systems and blocking the sunlight.
What are "HOTSPOTS?"
are areas with high species endemism and are experiencing rapid rates of habitat loss.
HOTSPOTS
Palawan has at least 1500 species of flowering plants . At least 225 species or 15% of it are endemic to the island.
Philippines is the 23rd most plant species rich country in the world and 7th in the Asian Region.

Ranks 2nd among the 10 botanical hotspot areas in the tropics.

HOTSPOTS
are areas with high species of endemism and are experiencing rapid rates of habitat loss.
Fauna of Philippine Biodiversity
REMEDIATION
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