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Natural Hazards in South America

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Shannon Huff

on 20 June 2014

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Transcript of Natural Hazards in South America

Intro
South America consist of the countries Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, Urguguay, Peru, Colombia, Equador, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guina, Suriname
Earthquakes, floods, fires, and some volcanic activity are the most common that occur in the area
Many which are severe causing lifes to be lost and lots of damage
South America Region
Economy
Culture
Population
Earthquakes
History of Earquake occurances
Chile, ranked largest with a 9.5 rating, occurring in 1960
Off the coast of Ecuador, near Esmeraldas on January 31, 1906 with a magnitude of 8.8. This earthquake produced a 5-m local tsunami that destroyed 49 houses and killed 500 people in Colombia. It was recorded at San Diego and San Francisco, where an earthquake in April of the same year had a magnitude of 7.8.
On August 17, 1906 an 8.2 quake in Chile all but destroyed Valparaiso.
Additionally, other significant quakes:
A May 31, 1970 earthquake in Peru with a magnitude of 7.9 killed 66,000 and caused $530,000 damage with a great rock slide and floods, destroying again the village of Ranrahirca which had been buried by a massive avalanche of rocks and ice from Cerro Huascaran in 1962
On July 31, 1970 a 8 magnitude earthquake struck Colombia
On June 9, 1994 Bolivia suffered an 8.2 quake {li]On January 25, 1999, a 6.2 quake hit Colombia
Coastal Peru was stuck by a 7.5 quake on June 23, 2001
On November 15, 2004 a 7.2 earthquake struck off the west coast of Colombia, near Chocó
GOAL!
Natural Hazards in South America
Shannon Huff
Culture Festival
Rank Country Population
1 Brazil 195,632,000
2 Colombia 47,130,000
3 Argentina 41,350,000
4 Peru 30,476,000
5 Venezuela 29,760,000
6 Chile 16,841,000
7 Ecuador 15,779,000
8 Bolivia 10,517,000
9 Paraguay 6,849,000
10 Uruguay 3,297,000
11 Guyana 798,000
12 Suriname 539,000
13 French Guiana 259,000
14 Falkland Islands (UK) 3,000
Poverty In the Countries
Earthquakes are most known to hit the west coast due to being on circum-Pacific belt because its where two tectonic plates are located
They're so dangerous because they risk tsunami's and volcanic eruptions
Floods
"Heavy rains that caused overflowing of rivers flooding in several countries in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay, among others), have also caused various emergency situations that have exacted a heavy toll in people and infrastructure. According to official reports, dozens of people have died, several are still missing and the number of affected people is around several thousands."
Fires
"Most of the fires are concentrated in Bolivia, where the governments of two states had declared a state of emergency because of widespread fires three days earlier. Scores of fires also burn in Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. While some fires do occur naturally in Bolivia, most of these fires were probably set deliberately to clear land for crops or pasture. August is the height of the dry fire season in the region. In 2010, however, unusually dry weather and winds allowed many land management fires to expand into dangerous large wildfires."
Volcanoes
There are 3 main volcanoes which are the biggest threat
Cotopaxi
"The second-highest peak in Ecuador, at 19,347 ft (5,897 meters) above sea level, is located just over 20 miles (32 km) from the capital city of Quito and its metro area with a population of over two-and-a-half million people."
Galeras
"Andean stratovolcano is located in the southern portion of Colombia, with the peak 33 miles (53 km) from the border with Ecuador. The mountain reaches to 14,029 ft (4,276 meters), and the city of Pasto sits just a few miles to the east of the crater, at the foot of the volcano, with a population of approximately half a million people."
Volcanoes cont.

"The final Andean stratovolcano we will discuss is the second-most active volcano in Colombia, after Galeras. Located 280 miles (448 km) northeast of Galeras, several sizable towns are nearby, and 80 miles (128 km) to the east is the capital city Bogotá, with a metro area of over ten million people. If just ten percent of the glaciers atop Nevado del Ruiz were to melt, the volume of the resulting lahar would be comparable to what occurred in 1985. A massive eruption would melt the glaciers much more, as the tragedy of 1985 occurred with a relatively small eruption."
Nevada Del Ruiz
Volcanoes in the Andes Mountains
"There are over 100 active volcanoes in the Andes Mountains , which is the longest mountain range on land (the mid-ocean ridges are longer). In total, the mountains extend about 4,300 miles (6,880 km), roughly paralleling the western coast of South America. They contain the tallest peaks in both the Western and Southern Hemispheres, and of anywhere outside Central Asia."
Most recent eruption
In 2014, Tungurahua, Momotomobo, Ubinas, and Nyamuragira have shown the most activity
Ubinas caused Peru to go into a state of emergency and people had to evacuate due to the ash in the air
Explosions have been occuring in Tungurahua but nothing severe enough, but in the spring it was highly active
Earthquakes led Momotomobo causing the volanoe to have some action, but not erupt
The amount of sulfur dioxide from Nyamuragira has people waiting for an eruption
Summary
South America has been known for having many
disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, fires and volcanic activity. Some more severe than others, but all damaging in different ways.
Conclusion
The disasters all occuring are because of the location and affecting so many people cause the population disaster. The west coast being heavily populated is at the most risk from earthquakes because of the tectonic plates. Floods seem to be the most dangerous, but unfortunately can't be predicted most of the time and cause the most damage. All that can be done is be prepared for the next disaster, anything can happen at any time and at any magnitude. But since most of the populations are of low income, there isn't much they can do to their houses to prevent from damage or be informed about a disaster heading their way.
Work Cited
"Brazil Floods: Country's Worst Natural Disaster in Decades as 482 Die." The Telograph. The Telograph, 14 Jan. 2011. Web. 20 June 2014.

"Earthquakes and South America." About.com South America Travel. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2014.

"Fires in South America : Natural Hazards." Fires in South America : Natural Hazards. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2014.

"Heavy Rains and Floods in South America Cause Severe Damages." ReliefWeb. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2014.

"Tano Calvenoa's Natural Sciences Blog." Tano Calvenoas Natural Sciences Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2014.

"News." Www.theweathernetwork.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2014.

"Flood Risk on the Rise in Brazil." Swiss Re. Swiss Re, n.d. Web. 20 June 2014.

Floods hit Brazil hard
Janurary 11, 2011 marks the day of one of the deadliest floods in Brazil, due to the heavy rainfall it led to mudslides too. More than 800 people were killed and 100,000 people were left homeless. Costing billions of damage.
"It is expected that both the occurrence and impact of flooding will increase in Brazil. During the period 1900-2006, floods accounted for 59% of natural disasters and landslides – which are often triggered by heavy rain and flooding – totalled 14%. Since 2000 flooding has caused annual average losses of about USD 250 million and killed almost 120 people per year."
June 13, 2014 before the world cup another flood hit, causing 10 deaths and 13,000 people to be removed from their homes
Due to the climate change, Brazil is seeing more floods and will continue to
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