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Animal Testing

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Jasmine Offei-Nkansah

on 20 November 2012

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Transcript of Animal Testing

Alternatives to Animal Research Animal Testing Animal Testing History of Animal Testing 1962-1986 1966-Present 1961-1968 Hunt Saboteurs Association (HSA) the beginning of UK animal rights extremists Thalidomide tragedy UK Medicines Act of 1968 U.S. Kefauver-Harris Act of 1961 originally established as a group advocating non-violence Animal Welfare Act of 1966 Federal regulation of animals in the U.S. All other laws, policies, and guidlines refer to AWA Current Research Methods
-Eye irritancy
-Acute Toxicity
-Repeated Dose Toxicity
-Skin Corrosivity/I Irritation
-Skin Sensitization
-Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics and Metabolism
-Dermal Penetration
-Mutagenicity
-Carcinogenicity
-Neurotoxicity
-Ecotoxicity
-Pyrogenicity
1) Asses potential of a substance on skin.

2) Detrmine damage to skin

3) Preformed on rabbits

4) Involved placing chemical on shaved patch of skin, using another as control.
1) Toxic effects of a substance on reproductive ability of an organism

2) Also assess the developmental toxicity.

3) Uses pregnant animals as test subjects

4) Animals killed pryor to delivery and fetuses are tested for any signs of toxicity. Current Research Laws and Regulations United States
Department of Agriculture Institutional Animal
Care and Use Committee Animal Welfare Act Pros Cons -Personal Views

-Ethics
- danger of exposure to a chemical by mouth, skin, or inhalation.
1) Up and down procedure
- Involves use of a similar number of animals
2) Animals endure convulsions, seizures, and loss of motor function. -Close to A&P of Humans

-Safety

-Development -Expensive

-Death

-Reaction Differences Fathers of Animal Testing Galen Zuhr Fathers of Animal Testing Galen Zuhr "father of vivisection" -a physician in 2nd century Rome Aristotle Aristotle -revealed anatomical differences among animals through dissection -first to perform experiments on living animals Current Research Methods Acute Toxicity Acute Toxicity Surgical Procedures Skin Corrosivity Irritation Reproduction and Development Toxicity Reproduction and Development Toxicity Public Health Services Established in 1966
Oversees and evaluates all aspects of the institution’s animal care and use program.
Responsibilities include:
inspecting animal labs at least twice a year
review the facilities animal care and use program
responding to and, if necessary, investigating and acting on any public complaints or facility personnel reports of noncompliance involving animal care and use
reporting deficiencies and animal care and use
submitting evaluation reports to institutions Shortcomings of the Laws Even with the supposed "protections" afforded by the AWA
and PHS Policy, millions of animals suffer and die in unnecessary, inadequately monitored, and counterproductive research. In Vitro (test tube) toxicity Human Brain
Imaging and Recording Techniques Production of Antibodies 1 2 3 Alternatives to Animal Research The USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Animal Care program administers AWA regulations and standards.
Businesses and individuals using regulated animals must be licensed or registered with the USDA and facilities with regulated animals must be inspected yearly by APHIS enforces the AWA Facilities using live vertebrate animals in research funded by the U.S. Public Health Service must also adhere to the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (the PHS Policy) and follow the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals produced by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR). a self-regulating entity that, according to U.S. federal law, must be established by institutions that use laboratory animals for research or instructional purposes to oversee and evaluate all aspects of the institution's animal care and use program. test drugs, chemicals, cosmetics, and consumer products
much faster than animal tests
MatTek’s In Vitro 3D Human Skin Tissue MRI, fMRI, PET, EEG, and CT scans
allow the human brain to be safely studied down to a single neuron
researcher have found ways to induce brain disorders using transcranial magnetic stimulation
Eliminate Interspecies extrapolation used to research, diagnose, and prevent diseases
can be produced using DNA created in a laboratory or taken from human cells instead of injecting deadly diseases in animals Conclusion What is YOUR opinion? background
current research
laws/regulations
Pro/Cons
Alternatives That is for YOU to decide? Works Cited

"Alternatives to Animal Testing." PETA: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. PETA, 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/alternatives-to-animal-testing.aspx>.

Archibald, Kathy. "Animal Testing." Global Action Network: : Articles on Animal Research: Science or Fiction? N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. <http://www.gan.ca/lifestyle/animal testing/articles on animal research/index.en.html>.

Draize, Joh H., Ph.D. "Types of Animal Testing." -The American Anti-Vivisection Society (AAVS). N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.aavs.org/site/c.bkLTKfOSLhK6E/b.6457299/k.82D0/Types_of_Animal_Testing.htm>.

"Laws and Regulations | Animal Use in Research." Laws and Regulations | Animal Use in Research. New England Anti-Vivisection Society, 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.neavs.org/research/laws>.

"Understanding Animal Research." Understanding Animal Research. N.p., 2 May 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/policy/animal-rights-extremism/the-early-history-of-animal-rights-extremism/>.

"Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research." Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. National Academy Press, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=1098>.

"Using Animals for Testing: Pros Versus Cons." About Animal Testing. N.p., 2000-2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/using-animals-testing-pros-versus-cons.html>.
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