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Rosaceae Presentation

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by

Arthur Sabian

on 3 December 2013

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Transcript of Rosaceae Presentation

Rosaceae
Arthur Sabian
Collin Butcher

General Overview
Rosaceae is a family of flowring plants
Also known as the Rose Family
Phylum Angiosperms Eudicots
Class Rosids and Order Rosales
2830 known species over the course of 95 genera
Can be herbs, shrubs, or trees
Found typically in forest temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia.
Clay Soil
Examples would be roses, almonds, apples, strawberries
Prunus
Plums, Cherries, Peaches Apricots, and Almonds.
Largest genera of Family Rosaceae
430 species spread throughout northern hemisphere
Fruit from this genus are commonly known as stone fruit
can be deciduous or evergreen
Mainly used as food and ornamental plants
Alchemilla
Genus of herbaceous perennial plants
around 300 named species
Most species are clump forming or mounded.
Majority are found in a cool temperate and arctic regions of Europe and Asia
Fan shaped leaves with hairs that provide a high degree of water resistance
Sorbus
Genus of trees and shrubs
around 100-200 know species
Commonly know as whitebeam, rowan, service tree, and mountain ash.
Genus is divided into two main sub genre
Sorbus home to the rowans also known as mountain ash primarily found in the UK
Aria home to the whitebeam white hairy below with carpels not fused.
Rowan berries used in some wines
Crataegus
Crataegus- commonly called hawthorn, or thornapple, or hawberry
Large genus of shrubs 16 to 49 ft tall
Native to the northen hemisphere, Europe and asia
Prefer temperate regions
Leaves are spiral arranged
Long shoot systems
Leaves are lobed or serrated
Margins can vary
Fruit/haw is berry like or pome like an apple
Cotoneaster
Cotoneuster- make up most species of shrubs
Temperate Asia, Europe and north Africa
Dense in the Himalayas
Between 70 to 300 species
Large shoots- 3 to 16 inches
Short 1 to 5 inches- for flowers
Leaves arranged alternately
Have both evergreen and deciduous
Flowers can be solitary or corymbs- many flowers together
5 petals, 5 sepals
Color white to pink to dark pink
10-20 stamens and 5 styles
Fruit- pome shape- pink, red, orange or black
Rubus
Rose family made up of woody stems
They have spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs
Fruit commonly called a bramble or cane fruit
Raspberry, and blackberries memebers of the genus
Forms from a single flower/carpel and fruit are like a peach
Defining characteristic is the lignified pit of the fruit
Chromosome count 7, diploid 14 chromosome
Anatomy
Flower:
Radially symmetrical
Mostly hermaphroditic
5 sepals, 5 petals, many stamens
Perfect Flower
Hypanthium-All parts fuse making the bowl
Yellow, orange, white

Leaves:
Leaf lamina- dorsiventral , or centric
Hydathodes- secretion of water- present (occasionally), or absent
Mucilaginous epidermis- present, or absent
Stomata present
Minor leaves have no phloem veins
Spiral on stem, usually alternate
Margins- serrate
Stem:
Have Pith present
No internal phloem
No internal cortical bundles
No medullary bundles
Have a secondary cambian ring
Axial xylem with vessels
Have herbaceous and occasionally woody stems
Ecology
Ecological Problems
Life Cycle
Mature Sporophyte
2N
Diploid
Microsporophytes in male anthers
Carpels megasporophyte in ovule
Megaspore and Microspore
N haploid
4 Megaspores made only one survives becomes polar nuclei and egg through mitosis female gametophye
Microspore becomes male pollen through mitosis is the male gametophyte
Heterosporous due to having both male and female gametophyte
Zygote
Pollen attaches to stigma forming pollen tube to fetilize the egg forming the zygote(2N)
Another pollen grain fertilizes polar nuclei to form endosperm (3N)
Developing Embryo
Zygote develops and becomes sporophyte embryo
Germination
process where the embryo seedling grows to a fully grown plant
Rosaceae Reproduction
Meiosis
Fertilization
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Many organisms eat the fruits which are nutrient rich such as apples, plums,cherries,and peaches
Hawthorns provides cover for wild animals
Members of this family are browsing plants for deers in dryer regions of North America.
In the genus Prunus some members produce a cyanide compound typically amygdalin which yields sugar, benzaldahyde, and cyanide by hydrolysis causing members specifically some cherries and almonds poisonous if consumed in large quantities.
A few member of the family have medicinal proprieties a well with Native americans using crab apples to treat diarrhea
Economical Importance
many of fruits are sold in major industries
many herbal teas are made by members of the family and sold.
The cherry wood is used to make high quality furniture due to it resists shrinkage and warping, pear wood is also used for furniture but also rulers, and apple wood makes the heads of some of the best golf clubs.
Many members of the family are known as ornamental plants since they are pleasing to look at with many gardens filled with roses and other members of the family.
1) Pesticides- kill off high amounts of the Rosaceae family
2) Disease- virus that attacks them
3) Animals/major pests- over population of deer
1) Flower- sepals open, begins to release chemicals
2) Pollination-animals come to gather pollen, bees
3) Wither- flowers die off after pollination
4) Rose hips/fruit- receptacle swells cause of seeds then eaten
Flowering Times
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