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The Counter Reformation -Catholic Churches response to the P
Transcript of The Counter Reformation -Catholic Churches response to the P
Their work renewed the churches emphasis on spirituality and service.
Name means the
The Society of Jesus.
Order was founded in 1534, by Ignatius of Loyola
Approved by the pope in 1539
Emphasized obedience to the church above all else.
Concentrated on education as a means to combat the Protestant movement.
Established missions, schools, and universities.
Church court meant to counter the Reformation.
court was called the Roman Inquisitions (1542)
Tried people accused of being Protestant.
Not the first time the Catholic Church has used an inquisition.
1478, Spanish monarchs set up the Spanish Inquisition. It was much harsher than the Roman Inquisition
It imposed religious uniformity on converted Muslims, Jews and later Protestants
Index of Forbidden Books
A list of books that the Church warned people not to read
Religious and Social Impact
Catholicism spread elsewhere. (North America) This was due mostly to the Jesuits.
Religious turmoil increased. Would lead to war in Europe.
Martin Luther's theses opened the door to religious freedom.
The Council of Trent
Convened by Pope Paul III in 1545
met off and on until 1563
Clarified Catholic teaching on important issues
Addressed the corruption of the clergy.
Training of priests was regulated
Financial abuses curbed
Sales of indulgences abolished
The Counter Reformation -Catholic Church's response to the Protestant movement
Rejected emphasis on self-discipline and individual faith, made by the Protestants
believed the Catholic Church could help believers achieve salvation by using mystery and magnificent ceremonies to inspire faith.
Pronouncements of the Council of Trent meant that there would be no compromise between Protestants and Catholics.
Persecution and Hysteria
Both Jews and Muslims were forced to convert or leave in Spain.
Jews moved into Southern and Eastern Europe.
In some places Jews were forced to live in a particular part of the city called a ghetto.
People feared witchcraft
Accused people of practicing witchcraft
Penalty was death if found guilty.
Rising sense of national identity.
Protestant Reformation, indirectly encouraged the formation of independent states and nations.
Also lead to religious wars in Europe.
Religious Wars and Unrest
France and Spain vied for control on Italian peninsula.
During the Italian Wars control of Italy bounced between these two countries.
1527, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, sacked Rome
1559- The Italian Wars officially end.
credited with expanding the Italian Renaissance throughout Europe.
Conflict among Germans
German peasants were becoming more unhappy with high taxes and lack of power.
Reformation preachers were giving backing to the idea of freedom.
1524, tens of thousands of German peasants stormed castles and monasteries.
Known as the Peasant's Rebellion.
Martin Luther denounced the rebellion.
His refusal to support the rebellion prevented the Reformation from spilling over into a social revolution that encouraged social equality.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was determined to turn back the tide of Protestantism.
1546 He starts a war with the Lutheran princes of Germany.
Support for the war began to wane and in 1555, The Peace of Augsburg was signed.
Allowed each prince to chose the religion that he and his subjects would practice.
Conflicts between Religions
In France Huguenots (French Protestants) where a minority and fought against the Catholics.
Fighting ended when Henry of Navarre was crowned King of France.
he converted to Catholicism to become king.
1598- Henry issued the Edict of Nantes
Granted religious freedom for the Huguenots.