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Transcript of Engineering Thermometer
the beginning of man. And so have tools. As soon as scientists started having to deal with
chemicals, they also had to study heat and temperature. Which is why Santorio Santorio created one of the most used tools of today... History of the thermometer Also known as... The Thermoscope! The thermoscope was a device not created by Santorio Santorio, but by Galileo Galilei in 1593. The Thermoscope was basically just a thermometer without a scale, but it was also much less precise. It would only be used to measure if a substance got hot or cold, but you couldn't tell how hot or how cold it became. Then, in 1612, the Italian inventor Santorio became the first inventor to put a number scale on his thermoscope. It was the first clinical thermometer, and it was designed to be placed in a patient's mouth for temperature taking. Sadly, both Galileo's and Santorio's thermometers were awfully inaccurate. Which is why renovation of the thermometer continued. 1593 Galileo Galilei's Thermoscope This thermoscope was
the first to be built, and
was only used to measure
if a substance became hot.
It was inaccurate. Santorio Santorio's Thermomter This was the first thermoscope to have a scale placed on it. It was also very inaccurate. 1612 1654 The first liquid-in-a-glass thermometer was invented by the Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand II. The Duke used alcohol as his liquid. However, it was still inaccurate and used no standard scale. Ferdinand II's Thermometer Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit was the German physicist who invented the mercury thermometer in 1714. In 1724, he introduced the standard temperature scale that uses his last name - Fahrenheit Scale - and was used to record changes in temperature accurately. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit 1714 Evolution of the Thermometer Kelvin and Celsius The Celsius scale was invented by Swedish Astronomer Anders Celsius. The Celsius scale has 100 degrees between the freezing point (0°C) and boiling point (100°C) of pure water at sea level air pressure. The term "Celsius" was adopted in 1948 by an international conference on weights and measures. 1742 Anders Celsius Lord Kelvin took the whole process one step further with his invention of the Kelvin Scale in 1848. The Kelvin Scale measures the ultimate extremes of hot and cold. Kelvin developed the idea of absolute temperature, what is called the "Second Law of Thermodynamics", and developed the dynamical theory of heat.
In the 19th century, scientists were researching what was the lowest temperature possible. The Kelvin scale uses the same units as the Celcius scale, but it starts at ABSOLUTE ZERO, the temperature at which everything including air freezes solid. Absolute zero is O K, which is - 273°C degrees Celsius. 1848 Lord Kelvin small i (its a thermometer) F C Other Uses of
the Thermometer The thermometer was made for scientific uses, but renovations also made it possible to use in the medical field. The ear thermometer is one example of a medical use thermometer. It is good for detecting heat within the body with precision. It has helped doctors spot symptoms of lethal diseases. Clinical thermometers are now the most precise thermometers, with the creation of the infrared thermometer used to take temperatures on patients. These thermometers are extremely accurate and quick to use. Before the Thermometer.. Scientists never really dealt with heat or cared about heat before the thermometer. They realized that heating something makes it change, but the didn't know how hot it had to get, because they had no type of measurement. The thermometer was a very revolutionary idea that helped scientists create more precise experiments since the beginning of the Industrial Age. Since it's creation, scientists have become more aware of how important it is in science, and it has also helped us in the medical field. It has created a whole new understanding for chemistry and how crucial precision can be in science. FIN