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Cold War Introduction
Transcript of Cold War Introduction
Capitalism Vs. Communism
Democratic government Vs. Totalitarian government
Individual freedom Vs. State control
Each sees the other as a threat to their system
Each want to gain influence over other nations
Each wants to spread their beliefs and influence around the globe
Russian Civil War (1918-1921)
US & Britain support White Army against the Red Army
Did not want Bolsheviks in control of Russia
Communist ideas dangerous
Fear that communism would spread to the US
Laws limited immigration from Eastern Europe, known communists depoprted
Intensify fear of Communism & USSR
Sacco & Vanzetti Trial
1920: Italian anarchists Sacco & Vanzetti, accused of robbery & murder outside Boston. Tried with little evidence, found guilty & executed.
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer arrested thousands of suspected communists & anarchists and held them without trial or evidence.
US does not recognize Soviet Union until 1933
US angered by Stalin's non-aggression pact with Hitler in 1939
US angered by Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939
FDR called USSR a "dictatorship as absolute as any other dictatorship in the world"
Hitler still seen as more of a threat & FDR "would hold hands with the devil" if necessary
WWII Uneasy Allies
June 1941: Nazi Germany breaks pact & invades Soviet Union
Soviet Union joins Allied Powers
US provides miltary & economic aid to Soviet Union after Hitler invades Russia in June 1941
Two nations do not trust one another during the war
Each nation wants to impose its own ideology after the war is over
Soviets invade Germany from the East
US & Britain invade from the West
May 7, 1945 Germany surrenders
US & USSR occupy Germany
Nazi Soviet Pact Cartoon
President Franklin Roosevelt
Cartoon showing Hitler breaking the non-aggression pact with Stalin
Soviet troops raising their flag atop the Reichstag in Berlin
Stalin, FDR & Churchill
US, Britain & France occupy western Germany
Soviets occupy eastern Germany
Berlin is also divided into 4 occupation zones
Stalin breaks promise to hold democratice elections in Eastern Europe
1946: Stalin establishes pro-Communist governments in all Soviet occupied nations. These are called satellite nations, surround and protect USSR
Stalin creates Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. Soviet Bloc
Post War Conflict
US & Britain afraid communism will spread to a weakened Western Europe
Develop policy of Containment
Containment: stop communism from spreading further, contain it where it already exists
Churchill: "Iron Curtain Speech"
"from Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe -- Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia. From what I have seen of our Russian friends and allies during the war I am convinced that there is nothing they admire so much as strength and nothing for which they have less respect than military weakness."
Term used to describe the division between free democratic Western Europe & Communist controlled Eastern Europe
US successfully develops atomic bomb & uses it to end the war with Japan
Soviets want access to the bomb, US says "no"
Soviets begin their own bomb program
Soviets want a total ban on all bomb materials, US favors regulation to keep their monopoloy on the bomb
1949: Soviet Union tests their own atomic bomb
Arms Race between the two countries begins
February 1946: Stalin delivers a speech blaming World War II on capitalism
States that capitalism & communism can not coexist
Kennan: Long Telegram
George Kennan: US diplomat who worked in Soviet Union
Sends memo to Washington explaining his opinion on the future with the USSR
Influence foreign policy with Soviet Union
Creates a more hard-line stance for the US
could not foresee "permanent peaceful coexistence" with the West.
Stalin had a "neurotic view of world affairs" and was a manifestation of the "instinctive Russian sense of insecurity."
Soviets were deeply suspicious of all other nations and believed that their security could only be found in "patient but deadly struggle for total destruction of rival power."
Soviets would try to expand their sphere of influence with Iran and Turkey as the most likely immediate trouble areas.
Soviets would do all they could to "weaken power and influence of Western Powers on colonial backward, or dependent peoples."
Soviet Union was "impervious to logic of reason," it was "highly sensitive to logic of force."
Soviets would back down "when strong resistance is encountered at any point."
no direct conflict between US & USSR
fight "through" other nations (Korea, Vietnam, Cuba)
attempt to control & influence other nations
spread their own ideology
always the threat of nuclear war & annihilation
What is a
Communism in China
Mao Zedong leads Communist revolution in China
US supports China's Nationalist government under Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi)
October 1949 Mao takes control and declares the creation of the People's Republic of China
Military Alliances Form
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Warsaw Pact: 1955
The Marshall Plan
Sec of State George C. Marshall
provide aid to rebuild Western Europe
make Europe's economy strong
prevent spread of Communism into Europe
1948 - 1951
$13 Billion in aid
Truman Doctrine (1947)
Greece & Turkey under threat of Communist takeover
President Truman promises $400 million in aid
Communists are stopped
able to stop the spread of Communism through $
“the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.”