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Ebola

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on 8 December 2014

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Transcript of Ebola

Location: W. Uganda
Strain: BDBV
Mortality rate: 34%
Cases: 116
Deaths: 39
Ebola
Breakdown of geography
First reported case in 1976; named after Ebola river around where discovered
Jungle lands
Recent outbreaks: Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, U.S., etc.
Weak health systems, lack of human and infrastructural resources, long periods of conflict and instability.
Cultural aspects
Introduction to human population:
Close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals found ill or dead or in the rainforest.
Consumption of fruit bats (can carry virus without exhibiting symptoms)
Non-human primates can spread 4 strains; last does not affect humans
Human-to-human transmission: direct contact
Religious worship - hugging
Religious burial ceremonies - washing, kissing, hugging
People remain infectious as long as their body fluids (blood, semen and breast milk) contain the virus.
Creating a Vaccine
What has Worked
Why Ebola is Different
Conclusion
Where does Ebola come from?
Transmission
-animal-to-human; consumption of animals that are infected by Ebola
-human-to-human; direct contact such as
blood
secretion
organs or other bodily fluids (of infected people either deceased or living)
contaminated surfaces and materials
-remain infectious as long as their blood and bodily fluids, including semen and breast milk, contain virus
-men who recovered from the virus can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery
Why is it SO Bad?
Presented By: Team 10
Team Members:
Emily Burnette- Leader
Paul Braddock
Rosemary Campbell
Taylor Gardiner
Sung (Karen)- Ryoung Kim
Michelle Peng
Joseph Watson
Rachel Won
Ciara Wu
Lily Zhou
Causes
Rare disease caused by infection of one of the Ebola virus strains

Disease can be found in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys,gorillas,chimpanzees)

There are five species of the Ebola virus; four are known to infect humans

Found in many African countries
What is Ebola?
Statement of Problem
The West Africa Ebola Virus is causing widespread fatalities and panic across the world.
Researchers believe the virus originates in animals
Four of the five strains have native African animal hosts
Bats are the most likely suspects
Image: CDC

A woman in Ivory Coast dries bush meat near a road in March
-originated from animals like fruit bats
-animals that eat fruits contaminated by bats are likely to have Ebola disease
-wild animals, rats, and bats (bush meats) are food for Africans for their forefathers; life-sustaining protein where nutrition is scarce


World Health Organization

WHO: Most Active

WHO aims to:
Maintain surveillance:
manage cases and trace contact

Support at risk countries:
produce preparedness plans

Engage and educate communities

Educate and Train Health Care workers

Perform laboratory services

Infection control
Organizations
First symptoms
- Fever
- Fatigue
- Muscle Pain
- Headaches
- Sore throat
Fatal
- Internal/external bleeding
- blood in stools, nose, gums, etc
- Very low white blood cells and platelet counts
Followed by...
- Vomiting
- Diarrhea
- Skin Rashes
- Impaired kidney/liver functions
Effects
Incubation period: 2-20 days
Severe Damage to the Skin
- Small white blisters
- severe red rashes
- rips in the skin (blood easily pours out)
Systemic Virus
- Attacks every tissue and organ of body (except skeletal muscles and bones)
Development Stages
- inflammation of the throat
- accompanied by adbominal pains and vomiting
Over 50 American non- governmental organizations
Unicef
Doctors of the World
Stop Hunger Now
Symptoms
First American Case
Thomas Eric Duncan- died Oct. 8th, 2014
Contracted in Liberia
Carried Pregnant Woman who was Infected
Visit America to see Son
Gained symptoms
Sought medical attention and released from Texas Health Prebyterian Hospital Dallas
Readmitted to Dallas Hospital
Remained in isolation until death


Second American Case
Third American Case
Amber Vinson
Contracted Virus as Nurse to Duncan
Recovered and Released in Atlanta Hospital
Fourth American Case
Craig Spencer
Contracted Virus in Guinea
Medical Aid for Doctors Without Borders
Treated and Released at NYC Hospital
American Cases
The WHO (managed out of the UN) claims that by Jan. 20th there could be 10,000 new cases each week worldwide.
Nina Pham
Contracted Virus as Nurse of Duncan
Recovered and released Oct. 24, 2014
Cost of Research
R2HC
Designated €6.5($8.12) million for an emergency ebola initiative
Response to outbreak in West Africa
Research funds are split
How the funds are split is still being decided
NIAID
Is a sub-organization that is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Budget of the NIAID is directly related to the NIH's budget
Budget cuts leave less money for ebola research
NIAID has a budget of $4.39 million for the year 2014
Has to be split between research projects
Travel
Modern transportation has allowed us to go where ever we please, but along with our luggage and our sense of adventure we bring our wellness, or, rather, lack thereof...
Ebola Time Line
Most research projects concerning ebola
are funded by grants provided by larger
organizations.
There are two groups that sponsor a
majority of the current and future ebola
dedicated research projects
Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises
(R2HC)
National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Diseases
(NIAID)
June, 1976
August, 1976
Location: Zaire
Strain: EBOV
Mortality rate: 88%
Cases: 318
Deaths: 280
Location: S. Sudan
Strain: SUDV
Mortality rate: 53%
Cases: 284
Deaths: 151
Airplanes:
ex: Amber Vinson
http://www.diplomaticcallonline.com
http://rockaway.newyork.resiliencesy
stem.ord
http://www.fairhopeumc.org
https://pbs.twimg.org
http://www.nydailynews.com
http://media.townhall.com/
http://media4.s-nbcnews.com
http://gannett-cdn.com
www.nydailynews.com
www.WHO.com
Cure Hypothesis
Three Steps
1. Producing an Antigen
2. Isolating the Antigen
3. Producing a Vaccine
Ebola targets multiple tissues at once
Made up of 6 proteins
18,959 letters of Nucleotide Bases
Humans have 3 Billion Base Pairs
Due to RNA, Ebola is Prone to Mutations
Specific Antigens cannot be created
Some Treatments Exist
For Humans Zmapp, TKM-Ebola
Zmapp is a combination of 3 Antibodies
Grown from Tobacco Plants
Vaccines for Mice Exist
Ring Vaccination
Effectively eliminated Smallpox
Molecular Level
entrance into the cell
replication
inflammatory molecules
reality =2x reported
by the time it's diagnosed, it's too late
90% mortality rate
few testing labs, even
fewer hospitals designed
to treat ebola
Location: Reston, Virginia
Strain: RESTV
Mortality rate: unspecified
Cases: several monkeys
Deaths: several monkeys
Location: Ivory Coast
Strain: TAFV
Mortality rate: 0%
Cases: 1
Deaths: 0
November, 1989
1994
Location: DRC
Strain: EBOV
Mortality rate: 81%
Cases: 315
Deaths: 254
Location: Uganda
Strain: SUDV
Mortality rate: 53%
Cases: 425
Deaths: 224
Location: DRC
Strain: EBOV
Mortality rate: 90%
Cases: 143
Deaths: 128
Location: DRC
Strain: EBOV
Mortality rate: 71%
Cases: 264
Deaths: 187
Liberia: 7082 2669
Sierra Leone: 6190 5152
Guinea: 2047 1745
USA: 4 4
reported confirmed
May, 1995
August, 2000
2001-2003
2007
2007
Location: West Africa
Strain: EBOV
Mortality rate: <50%
Cases: <16,000
Deaths: <7,000
2013-present
Location: DRC
Strain: EBOV
Mortality rate: 74%
Cases: 66
Deaths: 49
August 2014
Animals:
dogs: "Excalibur" vs. "Bentley"
Colorado Children’s Immunization Coalition, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment,, and Vaccine Advisory Committee of Colorado. "Immunize For Good." How Vaccines Are Made. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2014.
(Spain) (Dallas)
Bodily Fluids:
"Antibody: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.
direct and indirect
Preston, Richard. "The Ebola Wars." New Yorker 27 Oct. 2014: 42-53. Print.

Preston, Richard. "The Ebola Wars." New Yorker 27 Oct. 2014: 42-53. Print.
Looi, Mun-Keat. "How Much of a Threat Is the Ebola Virus?" Science Uncovered Oct. 2014: 14-15. Print.
There is no cure

Everything is in the experimental stages
The U.S. does not have an official protocol for handling and treating infected people, for both paitents and staff
Attempts: hazmat suits, burying attire in the ground, isolation of paitents and nurses, burning materials, tracking exposed persons

24 public health labratories equipped to test and research ebola

20 hospitals designed to treat ebola paitents
New York/Long Island, NY: 10
Chicago, IL: 4
Denver/Aurora, CO.: 3
Omaha, NE: 1
Bethesda, MD: 1
Atlanta, GA: 1
Paitents could not get the help they need:
The epidemic rages in
Texas
, but the closest equipped center is in Atlanta, Georgia
paitent becomes too weak to be transferred
not enough trained health staff in the U.S.
over a hundred nurses exposed
hospitals refusing to take ebola paitents, staff quitting

Travelers can lie about their exposue and appear healthy, easily passing security checks and thus spread the disease, just as Duncan, the first case in the U.S., did
Some may unintentially spread ebola due to non-immeadite appearence of symptoms
The West African Ebola Virus
is something that is felt internationally, but by taking calm steps to contain, research, and plan we can take steps to stop it's spread.

Things to keep in mind
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/about/whoWeAre/budget/Documents/2014CJ.pdf
http://www.elrha.org/R2HC/Ebola-Health-Research-Call
Work Cited
"Helping Those Affected by the West Africa Ebola Virus." UNICEF- Liberia Ebola Virus Disease: SitRep#46 (n.d.):n.pag.USAID: From the American People. Center for International Disaster Information. Web. 26 Oct. 2014.
"Ebola Virus Disease." WHO. WHO Media Centre, n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2014
Cases of Ebola Diagnosed in the United Sates." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 25 Oct. 2014. Web. 25 Oct. 2014.
"Ebola Facts: When Did Ebola Arrive and Spread at a Dallas Hopital?" The New York Times. 30 July 2014. Web.21 Oct. 2014.
First Case of Ebola Diagnosed in U.S. afted infected Man Arrives in Texas from West Africa:CDC."NY Daily News. N.p.,n.d. Web 27 Oct. 2014.
labratories hospitals
the bottom line is
Full transcript