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Chronicle of a Death Foretold IO
Transcript of Chronicle of a Death Foretold IO
Gender Roles and Machismo Paloma Ales
Isis Perez Chapter 1 Females Males Chapter 3 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3
Santiago Nasar is characterized as the dominant male in his family - "The death of his father had forced him to abandon his studies at the end of secondary school in order to take charge of the family ranch." (pg. 8)
Usually in hispanic culture, the dominant male is the father and then it goes down from there. Chapter 2 "...he challenged the most skillful swimmers, who were many, and left the best behind by twenty strokes in crossing the river and back." (pg. 27)
By challenging the swimmers, Bayardo San Roman was trying to show off how athletic he was. According to machismo, it it necessary for the men to show how masculine, strong, and physically powerful they are. "Her pleasurable mulatto girls... they'd been working without cease for three days... taking care of the guests of honor... for those of us still unsated by the wedding bash." (pg 64)
We see sexuality in the brothels where the narrator, Santiago, and their other friends would hang out"Bayardo San Roman had taken her to her parent's house by foot so that the noise of the motor wouldn't betray his misfortune." (pg. 67)
Dominance of women is also a very important part of machismo. Bayardo San Roman is an example of this dominance. On page 9, we see the machismo in Santiago just take over as he tries to rape Divina Flor following in his father's footsteps when his father had an affair with Victoria Guzman - the maid. This would exemplify that the women, especially the help, had no authority and were merely used as objects.
"Angela Vicario, the beautiful girl who'd gotten married the day before, had been returned to the house of her parents because her husband had discovered that she wasn't a virgin." (pg. 21)
We see that in the hispanic culture present in the novel, women were shunned as soon as they lost their virginity before marriage. We see the act of machismo and pride in Bayardo for returning Angela back to her home after holding an extravagant and expensive wedding. "She devoted herself with such spirit of sacrifice to the care of her husband and the rearing of her children that at times one forgot she existed." (pg. 31) (Description of Pura Vicario)
Pura Vicario is the embodiment of marianismo which is the female version of machismo. According to marianismo, women are self sacrficing, religious, and are responsible for running the household and raising children. Santiago follows in his father's footsteps - "He was just like his father," Victoria Guzman answered her. "A shit." (pg. 10)
In the hispanic culture, it was known for the men to take advantage of their maids and any woman beneath their class/social status Do you feel that Santiago is obligated to act like his father? "When I wake up," he said, "remind me that I'm going to marry her." (pg. 29)
Bayardo embraces the machismo idea that men must conquer. He treats Angela as yet another object or task for his to conquer since he will need to be reminded of marrying her when he wakes up. He says he is going to marry her rather than courting her which shows his confidence that he will win her hand. "Her father Poncio Vicario... lost his sight from doing so much fine work in gold in order to maintain the honor of the house." (pg. 30)
In Latin American culture, it is important for the man to provide both the honor and the income for his family. The idea of honor is so important that Poncio ends up going blind because of his determination to keep the family honor. Why would Poncio Vicario continue to work in this job until he was blind, instead of getting another job and be able to provide a stable income for the family? Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 "But most of those who could have done something to prevent the crime and did not console themselves with the pretext that affairs of honor are sacred monopolies." (pg. 97)
In the end, everyone finds an excuse not to tell Santiago that he was to be murdered and blame it on the basis for his death - a death that would symbolize the returning of honor to Angela Vicario's family. "He thought that his money made him untouchable," he told me. Fausta Lopez, his wife, commented: "Just like all Turks." (pg. 101)
These two individuals resented Santiago and disliked him because of his Turkish background - displaying how true to their roots they are. "The brothers were brought up to be men. The girls had been reared to get married." (pg. 31)
The Vicario girls could screen embroidery, sew by machine, weave bone lace, wash and iron, etc. They also knew how to deal with death which was uncommon among the other girls in the village. "She and the blind father accompanied her to watch over her honor." (pg. 37)
At that time it was very important for women to be virgins when they got married. Since Angela's parents are ardent followers of Latin American culture it is natural for them to continue following this trend by trying to ensure Angela's virginity. Is Angela the most powerful or least powerful woman in the novel? Women who grew in an environment where male dominance is accepted tend to reinforce it.
Prudencia Cotes: "I knew what they were up to, and I didn't only agree, I never would have married him if he hadn't done what a man should do." (pg. 62)
Clotilde Armenta: Believed that the Pedro Vicario's shaving with a butcher knife was the height of machismo.
Maria Alejandrina Cervantes: "She taught us so much... there's no place in life sadder than an empty bed." (pg. 65) "Aura Villeros, the midwife who helped bring three generations into the world, suffered a spasm of the bladder when she heard the news." (pg. 97)
Being a midwife in these times was very popular and this quote shows how the shock of Santiago's murder affected one of the most well respected women of the village. "I thought so. He's the son of the worst kind of mother." (pg. 107)
Placida Linero, upon learning that the bishop did not greet the town properly became enraged and criticized his own upbringing - showing no instilling of morals or manners. Why is Bayardo the victim and not Angela? Has the view of men in Hispanic society changed since then? How? Have the views or treatment of women changed since the 1950s? How? Is it really fair that Angela was taken back to her home? What if she never was taken home? How would the town react to Bayardo being with Angela knowing her crime? "For the immense majority of people there was only one victim: Bayardo San Roman, They took for granted that the other actors in the tragedy had been fulfilling with dignity, and even with a certain grandeur, their part of the destiny life had assigned.them"
The brothers had to commit the murder as an act of honor and courage to defend their family name. In the hispanic culture, the men usually are the voice for the family therefore, it seemed as if the brothers were obligated to defend the family's honor and try to redeem themselves from the action their sister committed. It also seemed that because their father went through so much, they had intentions to build up the family name. "I found Maria Alejandra Cervantes awake as always at dawn, and completely naked and always when there weren't strangers in the house." (pg. 77)
Maria was in mourning and yet tried to live life's usual routine, showing how the murder of Santiago Nasar was about honor and must be understood as that
"She recounted how her friends had instructed her to get her husband drunk in bed until he passed out...to fake virginity, and to stain the sheet with Mercurochrome so she could display it in the following day in her bridal courtyard." (pg.90)
The fact that a newlywed couple must display the stained sheets shows how important this is in their society. This also plays into the hypocritical situation where women cannot be promiscuous or commit whorish acts because they will be looked down upon. In contrast, the men can sleep with countless women and do what they please because of their role in society as the "breadwinner". Colombian Culture Religion The majority of Colombians are catholic which could tie into how everyone was so excited that the bishop was coming to town. Santiago being described as Jesus Christ, or that he was somehow the Jesus Christ of the town could have a Catholic influence. The Role of the Family The family takes center stage in the social structure.
The family is the form of support and there is great loyalty in the family. This can be seen in how Santiago's mom believes that her son is innocent. Or how the Vicario brothers rushed to kill Santiago Nasar hours after their sister told them that she wasn't a virgin. They were all loyal to their family and they put their family first.
It is common for children to stay in their parents' house after marriage or with an adult age. Colombian Culture Social Structure White people are those who dominate the upper class, while mulattos and mestizos make up the middle and lower classes Gender Roles As a result of colonial influence, men are those who are dominant in the household as the breadwinner and assume family responsibility for maintaining the social pride and family name. For example, the Vicario brothers killing Santiago.
Machismo defines the woman's role as a mother. The woman is to put her husband's wishes before her own. She is responsible for the children and the household work. The only one who had lost everything was Bayardo San Roman. In the end Bayardo lost everything because he got ridiculed and pitied by everyone because of Angela.