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Anatomy & Physiology: The Central Nervous System

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james donahue

on 6 November 2018

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Transcript of Anatomy & Physiology: The Central Nervous System

1. Prefrontal cortex
2. Wernicke's area
3. General interpretation area
4. Visceral association area
The Central Nervous System
Coverings
The meninges
Dura mater
Bone
Epidural space (fat)
Meninges
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)

Epidural space
Subdural space
Subarachnoid space

Epidural injection
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater
Cerebral Spinal
Fluid (CSF)

Watery solution similar in
composition to blood plasma

Forms a liquid cushion that gives
buoyancy to the CNS organs

Prevents the brain from crushing
under its own weight

Protects the CNS from blows and
other trauma

Nourishes the brain and spinal cord and carries chemical
signals throughout it
When Physics Meets Biology
youtube.com/watch?v=EtlUBAWHjKM
Spinal Cord
ss
vs
vm
sm
posterior horn
lateral horn
anterior horn
dorsal root
ventral root
dorsal root
ganglion
central canal
dural sinuses
The Brain
the cerebrum
cortex
the diencephalon
thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
the brain stem
midbrain, pons, medulla, cerebellum
The Cerebrum
gyrus/gyri - the bumps
sulcus/sulci - the grooves
Lobes
Longitudinal fissure
Corpus callosum
Corpus Callosotomy
Functions
The motor areas
1. Primary motor cortex
2. Pre-motor cortex
3. Broca's area
The sensory areas
Aphasia due to damage to Broca's area
Sarah Scott suffered an ischemic stroke at age 18
1. Primary somatosensory cortex
2. Primary visual cortex
3. Primary auditory cortex
4. Olfactory and gustatory cortices
The association areas
1. Somatosensory association cortex
2. Visual association cortex
3. Auditory association cortex
Diencephalon
Thalamus
Corpus callosum
Hypothalamus
Epithalamus
Thalamus
conduct sensory impulses to the cortex
conduct motor impulses to the cerebellum
mediates sensation, motor activities, learning and memory
Hypothalamus
autonomic control
emotional response
body temperature
food and water intake
sleep wake cycles
endocrine (pituitary)
Epithalamus
A.K.A. - pineal gland
secretes melatonin
The Brain Stem
Cerebellum
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla
visual and auditory reflexes
CN III and IV
connect cerebrum to cerebellum
respiratory control (PRG)
CN V, VI and VII
respiratory control (DRG & VRG)
cardiac control
vasomotor actions
vomiting, sneezing, coughing...
CN VIII, IX, X, XI and XII
processes information from cerebrum
coordinates skeletal muscle contraction
The Ventricles
Complete Homunculus
Surface ectoderm
(a) 19 days
(b) 20 days
(c) 22 days
(d) 26 days
Neural folds
Neural crest
Surface ectoderm
Neural groove
Neural tube
Anterior (rostral) end
Level of section
Neural plate
Day 13
Day 16
21-23 days
19-21 days
17-19 days
During the first 26 days of development:
Ectoderm thickens along dorsal midline to form the neural plate
The neural plate invaginates, forming a groove flanked by neural folds
The neural groove fuses dorsally and forms the neural tube

Cephalization
Elaboration of the cranial portion of the CNS
Increase in number of neurons in the head
Highest level is reached in the human brain
The anterior end of the neural tube expands and constricts to form the three primary brain vesicles
Prosencephalon – the forebrain
Mesencephalon – the midbrain
Rhombencephalon – hindbrain
Development
of the Central
Nervous System

I – Olfactory n.
sensory - smell
II – Optic n.
sensory - sight
III – Oculomotor n.
motor – superior rectus, medial rectus,
inferior rectus, inferior oblique,
levator palpebrae, intrinsic eye muscles
IV – Trochlear n.
motor – superior oblique
V – Trigeminal n.
sensory – to head and neck
motor – mastication muscles
VI – Abducent n.
motor – lateral rectus
VII – Facial n.
sensory – taste; anterior 2/3 tongue
motor – to facial muscles, lacrimal glands,
submandibular, sublingual salivary glands
VIII – Vestibulocochlear n.
sensory – sound and balance
IX – Glossopharyngeal n.
sensory - taste; posterior 1/3 tongue
motor – parotid gland and
pharyngeal muscles (swallowing)
X – Vagus n.
sensory – taste; palate and pharynx
visceral sensation
motor – visceral organs
XI – Accessory n.
motor – SCM and trapezius
XII – Hypoglossal n.
motor – tongue
Old, Oprah, Occasionally, Tries,
Trigonometry, And, Feels, Very,
Gloomy, Vague, And, Hypoactive
Some, Say, Money, Matters,
But, My, Brother, Says,
Big, Brains, Matter, Most
Cranial Nerves
16-year-old Yasser Lopez
Miami (2012)
What affects might this person exhibit?
Be sure you can:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsGAw_68BhU
Stuttering
www.youtube.com/watch?v=V43t_S7VGJA
www.youtu.be/r2bBFz6-RJI
Attentional Spotlight
www.youtu.be/O8W_Th5LyiA
Multitasking
www.youtu.be/LunMWOYeqa0
Movement and Orienting
(a commissure)
www.youtu.be/basfQVt_sVk
Multitasking (2)
www.youtu.be/NY96wnAFZ8Y
Can you "unsee"?
www.youtube.com/watch?v=8-AL1pEonvs
Pay Attention
www.youtube.com/watch?v=a2AExeXl41U
“The song was full of glittering orange diamonds.”

“The paint smelled blue.”

“The sunset was salty.”

“The pickle tasted like a rectangle.”

“The number 3 is mustard yellow.”

“The letter U is a soulless thing where J is male with
strength of character and K is female; quiet, responsible.”

“Orange is my default for pain (a dentist’s drill).”

“Speech is so yellowy and orange.”

“My favorite music makes lines move upwards.

“He now understood what scarlet signified…the
sound of a trumpet.”

“I avoid middle C when I play the piano because it has an earthy, musky smell I don’t like.”
Which of the above shapes is named Booba and which is named Kiki?

95 – 98% Named the orange shape Kiki and the Purple shape Booba.
www.youtube.com/watch?v=_GXjPEkDfek
Daniel Tammet
www.youtube.com/watch?v=q8NtmDrb_qo
www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZfP2X6wT5Q
Polio
www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFzDaBzBlL0
www.youtube.com/watch?v=PoPNKMy62Mg
www.youtube.com/watch?v=d406UaelD4Y
www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXbAMHzYGJ0
www.youtube.com/watch?v=RH0EKivFRFY
Muscle Memory?
Full transcript