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Types of Governments in WWII
Transcript of Types of Governments in WWII
Types of Governments in WWII
Democratic - Government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives.
Leaders of WWII
- was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, the leader of the Taisei Yokusankai, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during most of World War II, from October 17, 1941 to July 22, 1944.
Leaders of WWII
- the Russian leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
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Communist - A theoretical economic system characterized by the collective ownership of property and by the organization of labor for the common advantage of all members.
Fascist - A system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, stringent socioeconomic controls, suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship, and typically a policy of belligerent nationalism and racism.
- Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party. He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Leaders of WWII..
- an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943.
- emperor of Japan who renounced his divinity and became a constitutional monarch after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II
Nazi Germany flag
The Italian flag in use from 1848-1946
Chiang Kai-shek -
a Chinese military and political leader who led the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) for five decades and was head of state of the Chinese Nationalist government between 1928 and 1949.
Charles de Gaulle
- was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II. He later founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958 and served as its first president from 1959 to 1969.
Leaders of WWII
Franklin D. Roosevelt -
32nd President of the United States (1933–1945); he worked closely with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in leading the Allies against Nazi Germany and Japan in World War II. The war ended the depression and restored prosperity.
Allied Group: British Leaders
Neville Chamberlain -
was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940. He led Britain through the first eight months of World War II.
- a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the 20th century, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army.
Leaders of WWII
Harry S. Truman
- the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953). The final running mate of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944, Truman succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945, when Roosevelt died after months of declining health. Under Truman, the U.S. successfully concluded World War II. While Germany surrendered a few weeks after Truman assumed the Presidency, the war with Japan was expected to last another year or more. Truman ordered the use of atomic weapons against Japan, intending to force Japan's surrender and spare American lives in an invasion
Allied Group: American Leaders
Battles of WWII
Battle of Midway
- The Battle of Midway, fought between June 4 and 6, 1942 , must be considered one of the most decisive battles of World War II. The Battle of Midway effectively destroyed Japan’s naval strength when the Americans destroyed four of its aircraft carriers. Japan’s navy never recovered from its defeat at Midway and it was on the defensive after this battle. Midway Atoll (or Midway Island) was the focal point of the Battle of Midway, one of the most important battles of the Pacific Campaign in World War II.
Battle of the Bulge
- was a major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe. The surprise attack caught the Allied forces completely off guard and became the costliest battle in terms of casualties for the United States, whose forces bore the brunt of the attack. It also severely depleted Germany's war-making resources. An official report by the United States Department of the Army lists some 108,347 casualties, including 19,246 killed, 62,489 wounded and 26,612 captured and missing. The Battle of the Bulge was the bloodiest of the battles that U.S. forces experienced in World War II; the 19,000 American dead were unsurpassed by those of any other engagement. British losses totaled 1,400. The German High Command's official figure for the campaign was 84,834 casualties, and other estimates range between 60,000 and 100,000.
Battles of WWII
Battle of Iwo Jima -
On February 19-March 26, 1945 a major battle was fought, in which the United States Armed Forces fought for and captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Japanese Empire. The American invasion had the goal of capturing the entire island, including its three airfields, to provide a staging area for attacks on the Japanese main islands. This five-week battle comprised some of the fiercest and bloodiest fighting of the War in the Pacific of World War II. Despite the bloody fighting and severe casualties on both sides, the Japanese defeat was assured from the start. American overwhelming superiority in arms and numbers as well as complete control of air power, coupled with the impossibility of Japanese retreat or reinforcement, permitted no probable circumstance in which the Americans could have lost the battle. The battle was immortalized by Joe Rosenthal's photograph of the raising of the U.S. flag on top of the 166 m (545 ft) Mount Suribachi by five U.S. Marines and one U.S. Navy battlefield Hospital Corpsman.
Battle of Okinawa
- was fought on the Ryukyu Islands of Okinawa and was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War of World War II. The 82-day-long battle lasted from early April until mid-June 1945. After a long campaign of island hopping, the Allies were approaching Japan, and planned to use Okinawa, a large island only 340 mi (550 km) away from mainland Japan, as a base for air operations on the planned invasion of Japanese mainland (coded Operation Downfall). Four divisions of the U.S. 10th Army (the 7th, 27th, 77th, and 96th) and two Marine Divisions (the 1st and 6th) fought on the island while the 2nd Marine Division remained as an amphibious reserve and was never brought ashore. The invasion was supported by naval, amphibious, and tactical air forces. It resulted in an Allied victory. Okinawa was occupied by the U.S. until 1972.
Battles of WWII
Battle of Berlin -
designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European Theatre of World War II. Starting on January 12, 1945, the Red Army breached the German front as a result of the Vistula–Oder Offensive and advanced westward as much as 25 miles a day through East Prussia, Lower Silesia, East Pomerania, and Upper Silesia, temporarily halting on a line 37 miles east of Berlin along the Oder River. When the offensive resumed, two Soviet fronts (army groups) attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. The Battle in Berlin lasted from April 20 until the morning of May 2, 1945.
Battle of Stalingrad
- was the major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the southwestern Soviet Union. Marked by constant close quarters combat and disregard for military and civilian casualties, it is among the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. The heavy losses inflicted on the Wehrmacht make it arguably the most strategically decisive battle of the whole war. It was a turning point in the European Theatre of World War II and the German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew vast military force from the West to reinforce their losses.
On June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which “we will accept nothing less than full victory.” More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day’s end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot hold in Normandy. The D-Day cost was high, more than 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed or wounded; but more than 100,000 Soldiers began the march across Europe to defeat Hitler.
Great Individuals of WWII: American Generals
Douglas MacArthur - U.S. general who commanded the Southwest Pacific Theater in World War II, administered postwar Japan during the Allied occupation that followed.
George Patton - U.S. Army officer who was an outstanding practitioner of mobile tank warfare in the European and Mediterranean theaters during World War II. His strict discipline, toughness, and self-sacrifice elicited exceptional pride within his ranks, and the general was colorfully referred to as “Old Blood-and-Guts” by his men.
Dwight Eisenhower - was the 34th President of the United States. He was a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe; he had responsibility for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front.
Great Individuals of WWII
Albert Einstein & Robert Oppenheimer - Atomic Bomb
On August 2, 1939, just before the beginning of World War II, Einstein wrote to then President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Einstein and several other scientists told Roosevelt of efforts in Nazi Germany to purify U-235 with which might in turn be used to build an atomic bomb.
Roosevelt, awakened by Einstein's letter to the coming reality of atomic warfare, secretly authorized the Manhattan Project, a huge and expensive crash program of nuclear research that produced, in 1945, the world's first atomic bombs. We know now that the Germans abandoned their own atomic program at almost the same time FDR, fearing German superiority in the field, launched the Manhattan Project. And the first working atomic bombs only became available for use in the summer of 1945, after the Germans had surrendered and World War II in Europe was over; a weapon built to stop Hitler thus ended up being dropped on Japan instead
Great Individuals of WWII: Axis Generals & Axis and Allied Air Forces
- was a German Field Marshal of World War II. He earned the respect of both his own troops and his enemies. He is regarded to have been a professional and humane officer. Orders to kill Jewish soldiers, civilians, and capture commandos were ignored by him. In the fall of 1944, Rommel was linked to a conspiracy to kill Adolf Hitler. On October 14th 1944, Rommel was visited by two generals who had been sent by Hitler with an ultimatum: suicide with a state funeral and protection for his family and staff, or trial for high treason. Erwin Rommel was forced to take a cyanide pill to protect his family and it was stated that he died of a brain seizure.
Chief among the people who unleashed the power of the atom was Robert Oppenheimer, who oversaw the project from conception to completion. Over the course of six years (1939-1945), more than $2 billion was spent during the history of the Manhattan Project. The formulas for refining uranium and putting together a working atomic bomb were created and seen to their logical ends by some of the greatest minds of our time.
RAF (Royal Air Force) -
the air force of the UK. The main RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany.
Nazi air force founded in 1935; was the aerial warfare branch of the German Wehrmacht during World War II. Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. Led by Hermann Goering, it became the largest and most powerful in Europe by the start of World War II. After the defeat of the Third Reich, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946.
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II.
The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.
Over 3,500 Americans were killed or wounded in 2 waves of terror lasting 2 long hours
350 aircraft were destroyed or damaged.
All 8 battleships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet were sunk or badly damaged - including the U.S.S. Arizona.
All of America's aircraft carriers remained unscathed.
The sinking of the USS Arizona ended the story of the invincible battleship and began a new story about the superiority of the mighty aircraft carrier.
Clear tactical Japanese victory.
Start of V-E Day and V-J Day
V-E Day - Victory in Europe Day (VE Day) was on May 8th 1945. VE Day officially announced the end of World War Two in Europe.
V-J Day - Victory over Japan Day is a name chosen for the day on which Japan surrendered, effectively ending World War II, and subsequent anniversaries of that event. On September 2, 1945, a formal surrender ceremony was performed in Tokyo Bay, Japan, aboard the battleship USS Missouri.
The Tuskegee Airmen were the first African-American military aviators in the United States armed forces. During World War II, African Americans in many U.S. states were still subject to the Jim Crow laws and the American military was racially segregated, as was much of the federal government. The Tuskegee Airmen were subjected to racial discrimination, both within and outside the army. All black military pilots who trained in the United States (including five Haitians) trained at Moton Field, located in Tuskegee, Alabama.
Women's Place in the War
During World War II, some 350,000 women served in the U.S. Armed Forces, both at home and abroad. They included the Women's Airforce Service Pilots, who on March 10, 2010, were awarded the prestigious Congressional Gold Medal. Meanwhile, widespread male enlistment left gaping holes in the industrial labor force. Between 1940 and 1945, the female percentage of the U.S. workforce increased from 27 percent to nearly 37 percent, and by 1945 nearly one out of every four married women worked outside the home.
Women in uniform took office and jobs in the armed forces in order to free men to fight. They also drove trucks, repaired airplanes, worked as laboratory technicians, rigged parachutes, served as radio operators, analyzed photographs, flew military aircraft across the country, test-flew newly repaired planes, and even trained anti-aircraft artillery gunners by acting as flying targets. Some women served near the front lines in the Army Nurse Corps, where 16 were killed as a result of direct enemy fire. Sixty-eight American service women were captured as POWs in the Philippines. More than 1,600 nurses were decorated for bravery under fire and meritorious service, and 565 WACs in the Pacific Theater won combat decorations. Nurses were in Normandy on D-plus-four.
Blue Devils (Zoot Suit Riots)
Blue Devils -
The 88th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. It was unique in that it was the first Army of the United States division to be created "from scratch" after the implementation of the draft in 1940.
The Zoot Suit Riots
were a series of riots in 1943 during World War II that broke out in Los Angeles, California, between white sailors and Marines stationed in the city and Latino youths, who were recognizable by the zoot suits they liked to wear. Mexican Americans and military servicemen were the main parties in the riots, and some African American and Filipino/Filipino American youths were involved as well. The Zoot Suit Riots were in part the effect of the infamous Sleepy Lagoon murder trial which followed the death of a young Latino man in a barrio near Los Angeles. The incident triggered similar attacks against Latinos in Beaumont, Texas; Chicago; San Diego; Oakland; Detroit; Evansville; Philadelphia and New York.
The World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization. The conference convened in the Livadia Palace near Yalta, in Crimea, February 4-11, 1945. The meeting was intended mainly to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe.
Was the American initiative to aid Europe, in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to stop the spread of Soviet Communism. The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948. The goals of the U.S. were to rebuild war-devastated regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, and make Europe prosperous again. The phrase "equivalent of the Marshall Plan" is often used to describe a proposed large-scale rescue program.
United Nations - Plans to Fix the World
The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of January 1, 1942, during WWII, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.
An intergovernmental organization created in 1945 to promote international cooperation.
A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was created following World War II to prevent another such conflict.
At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193.