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1848 Revolutions in Italy (WITH answers)

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by

Elisabetta Paoli

on 2 December 2015

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Transcript of 1848 Revolutions in Italy (WITH answers)

1848 Revolution in the ITALIAN STATES
The Revolutions of 1848
The Causes
Nationalist = united Italy, opposed
Austria's
presence
demand for
liberal

forms of gov.
economic
difficulty


SICILY
-

SUCCESS: January - April, revolutionaries seized control of island.
Aim = independence from
Naples
Declaration proclaimed in
March
- Failure: Spring
1849
forcibly united to Naples
Naples
SUCCESS
- From Sicily revolution spread to
Naples
- King
Ferdinand
forced = parliament and removal of press censorship
The Papal States
SUCCESS
- MARCH 1848 = popular disturbances
.'. Pope
Pius IX
granted constitution

-November 1848 Pius IX left Rome = Republic under
Mazzini
Tuscany
SUCCESS
Republican government established in
1849


PARMA & MODENA
SUCCESS
-RULERS OF BOTH
STATES DRIVEN
OUT OF THEIR
POSSESSIONS
FAILURE
- RULERS RESTORED BY
AUSTRIAN
TROOPS

Piedmont
- SUCCESS
Charles Albert helped Lombardy
The End of the Revolution
in Europe
- By 1849
the forces of reaction were restored
= NO SINGLE NATIONAL STATE emerged; revolutionaries rejected across Europe.

REASONS:
REVOLUTIONARIES not
united
:
Middle- class liberals once obtained vote, abandoned
working class
working class little aware of
political ideologies
1847-48 harvests quite good. Once last remnants of feudal system removed,
peasants
not interested in revolution and
hostile
to urban revolutionaries
Nationalist groups not
united
and masses not affected by
nationalist
movements
Army's role = crucial = loyal to established
rulers
Britain
and France did not help the revolutionaries
CONSEQUENCE
Conservative

a
nd reactionary political order in Europe until
First World War
.




FAILURE
In
September

1848 = rising suppressed,
FAILURE
- Troops from France and Naples crushed
Roman
Republic.
June 1849 the
Pope
was retored.
FAILURE
-
Austrian
troops restored Grand Duchy of Tuscany
VENETIA
SUCCESS
-Republic proclaimed
22nd
March
1848

FAILURE
- Venice
besieged
by the Austrians in 1848 and finally surrended in
August
1849

LOMBARDY
Success
- Rising in Milan agst Austrian occupation.
- Austrian garrison was diriven out of
Milan
during the "5 days" (
18-22
March)
-A provisional government was set up.
-Lombardy received help from
Piedmont
Failure
Restored to Austrians in
August
1848
- FAILURE
Piedmont defeated by
Austrians
at
Custoza
in July 1848.






In March 1849 Charles Albert
restarted the war but
was defeated at
Novara
Full transcript