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Reflection: Theory & Practical Application- Boise State University
Transcript of Reflection: Theory & Practical Application- Boise State University
instructors to implement written reflection in service learning. National Society of Experiential Education Quarterly, 25(2), 23-25. Reflection: Theory & Practical Application This is the second in our Service-Learning series, designed to give you a solid foundation in service-learning methods and best practices. This presentation will introduce:
reflection theories in service-learning,
best practices and techniques for reflection, "Reflection does not have to be difficult, but it does need to be purposeful and strategic." III.
Strategies for Purposeful Reflection I.
Models of Reflection There are multiple models for reflection in service-learning. The goal of each model is to guide students to specifically analyze and evaluate their service experience. Select the model that works best for you. This model offers three ways that students can reflect on their service experience. Ideally, students will integrate all three elements into their reflection. Dewey (1963) first proposed a cyclical model for experiential education in which the learner prepares for and reflects on each experience. In this model, each reflective level progresses towards a deeper and more holistic understanding between course work and service experience. The Experiential Learning Cycle The ABC Model of Reflection: Bradley's Levels of Reflection IV.
Planning Reflection You may click on any of these links as you move through the module; the links will open in a new window and you can resume the presentation at any time. Students' reflection is egocentric. Typical statements made by students at this level are "I did this, I learned that..." Students begin to identify perspectives outside their own. Typical statements might be “I began to understand this differently…” or “I realized that not everyone feels the same way…” Students consider a variety of perspectives, and make connections between their service experience, the course work, and its greater social context. Level 1 Level 2 Have an identified outcome and are appropriate for the participants; During Service Pre-Service Post Service Case studies
Direct writing exercises
Readings Community partner interview
Calls to action
Project portfolios Ask students to consider how this learning experience might impact their future actions.
Example: What would you do differently if you could redo this project? Concrete Experience Questions Ask for descriptions of specific behaviors, interactions, or facts related to a particular situation.
Example: How did the clients react to .... Reflective Observation Questions Ask students to personally reflect on and interpret experiences, offer insights on other perspectives, and/or discuss impacts of experiences
Example: Put yourself in your clients' shoes. What would be their perspective on this project? Abstract Conceptualization Questions Ask students to compare, critique, and apply course theory to their service experience.
Example: Explain how our last reading applies to your service experience. Active Experimentation Questions Reflection Questions There are several types of questions that can be used during reflection. These examples can be tied to the reflection models discussed previously. Strategies for Quality Reflection Activities Are connected directly to the service and take place consistently throughout the course; Increase personal commitment to service, and draw "teachable moments" from negative experiences; Actively engage participants in the process of reflection. Strategies for Continuous Reflection Or to visualize reflection activities for different learning styles: Reflection maps are a strategy for organizing reflection for your Service-Learning curriculum. They can be tailored to any type of reflection activity. For example: Bloom provides six cognitive domains that can be applied to reflection to enhance the connection between the service experience and course material. Bloom's Taxonomy II.
Best Practices & Techniques The ability to implement and execute learned theories, methods, or rules The ability to recognize patterns and hidden meanings and to identify parts of a whole The ability to generalize and combine learned knowledge to create new ideas, draw conclusions, or identify relationships The ability to assess and critically examine the validity of theories, concepts, and methods VI.
Review and References Gelmon, S. B., Campus Compact (Project), & Brown University. (2001). Assessing service-learning and
civic engagement: Principles and techniques. Providence, RI: Campus Compact, Brown University. Bradley, J. (1995). A model for evaluating student learning in academically based service. In M. Troppe (Ed.), Connecting cognition and action: evaluation of student performance in service learning courses. Denver: Education Commission of the States/Campus Compact. Bringle, R. G., & Hatcher, J. A. (1999). Reflection in Service Learning: Making Meaning of Experience. Educational Horizons, 77 (4), 179-85. Models of Reflection Reflection Questions There are four general types of reflection questions:
Active Experimentation Reflection Maps Strategy for organizing and conceptualizing reflection for your Service-Learning curriculum.
Used to incorporate reflection before, during and after service experience
Can be tailored to any type of reflection activity, including mapping elements reflection, and reflection for different learning styles. Bringle, R. G., Phillips, M. A., & Hudson, M. (2004). The measure of service learning: Research scales to
assess student experiences. American Psychological Association. Quality reflection should:
Help students clearly connect service to course content
Have clear expectations for assessment
Focus on learning gained from experience, not the service itself
Include feedback from both instructors and partners
Allow students to consider and analyze their personal values Strategies for Continuous Reflection Provides another way to examine levels of understanding Bloom's Criteria: Can be used to assess the LEARNING GAINED student reflection. Identify: Students can identify and relate an academic concept to their service experience. Analyze: Students analyze the relationship between the academic material and their service experience. Bradley's Criteria: Can be used to assess the LEVEL of student reflection. Evaluate: Students evaluate the relevance of the course material in the context of their service. Review References Use a map to visualize potential reflection activities throughout the service: V.
Assessing and Evaluating "Without the sense of action to the Debrief, it is often a lifeless, futile exercise (...) The experience can come alive in the Debrief. The experience can be relived. The discussion is not a static, safe, merely cognitive exercise. It has feeling, anger, frustration, accomplishment and fun." For additional examples of service-learning reflection rubrics click here: http://bit.ly/iDwpSa Rubric Examples Bradley’s Criteria for Assessing
Levels of Reflection Bloom's Criteria for Assessing
Levels of Reflection It is helpful to know how to evaluate the learning gained as well as the level of student reflections. There are several ways to approach this evaluation. The following are examples of assessment criteria for student reflection using Bloom and Bradley's Models. Bradley’s Model can be used to identify what LEVEL of reflection the students are expressing. This can help you to find ways to help students move to a higher level of reflection. Bloom's criteria can be applied to student reflection
to assess LEARNING GAINED from the service experience. For example, we can incorporate Bloom's Taxonomy into a rubric: Review the models presented and describe the model that you relate to the most.
(Click link below to access form) Think about classes you have taught in the past. How have some of the reflection best practices or techniques been present in your teaching style?
(Remember to enter your response on the form you opened earlier) Brainstorm one question or activity that you might do for each point in the semester (pre-service, during service, and post service).
(Remember to enter your response on the form you opened earlier) Stop and Write #1: Stop and Write #2: Theory application papers
Free form and structured journaling Develop a Reflection Map for your Service-Learning course. Or, describe how you might incorporate reflection before, during, and after service.
(Remember to enter your response on the form you opened earlier) We are glad you are interested in Service-Learning! Each module contains references to additional resources to learn more about service-learning theory, best practices, and methodology. Affective Cognitive Students express their thoughts and emotions, and put them into the context of their service experience.
Generally includes phrases like "I think..." and "I felt that..." Level 3 Experiencing: Sharing: Processing: Generalizing: Applying: The activity phase Exchanging reactions and observations Discussing patterns and dynamics Developing real-world principles Planning effective use of learning Stop and Write #3: Stop and Write #4: Hopes/Fears
Discussion Presentation to
Community group Debriefing Theatre Asset Mapping Team Presentation Reflective Essays Letter to myself Structured Journals Informal Discussion Reflection with Community Oral Presentations Artistic Reflection Oral Histories Field Data Gathering Letter to Self Critical Questions Essays Integrative Papers Case Studies "Role of Service"
Articles http://bit.ly/oX4UXL Once you have completed all of the "Stop & Write" activities, click "submit" on the form. Your responses will be reviewed and saved by Service-Learning staff and can be used as you continue to plan your course. Each circle contains a "Stop & Write" prompt. Please take a moment to respond to the prompts by clicking on the link located below the first prompt. A new window will open with one form where you will enter all of your answers. Students connect their service experience to course content, by purposefully referring back to theories or text examples.
Generally includes phrases like "The reading really prepared me for ...." or "I can understand this now that..." Students examine their actions throughout the service experience and may explore the reasons behind them.
Generally includes phrases like "I did this..." and "I was nervous because..." Behavioral The ability to interpret, summarize and explain concepts and theories Students critically think about their experience and explore the changes they will make as a result of their newly gained knowledge. These reflections generally include phrases like, "Next time, I will..." and "This process would work better if...." Now What? Students begin making concrete connections between their service experience and course work. These reflections generally include phrases like, and "I can now see the connection between...." So What? What? Students describe their service experience. These reflections generally include phrases like "I did this, experienced this feeling, saw that...." Quality reflection should... Reflection Best Practices Help students clearly connect service experience to course content. Clarify expectations and criteria for assessing activities with an emphasis on the learning gained from the experience, not the service itself. Include feedback from instructors and community partners. Include opportunities for students to consider and analyze their personal values. The 4 Cs Effective reflection is: Reflection blends the theoretical concepts with the
service experience to create a holistic understanding of classroom learning objectives. Reflection should push students to question their perceptions and explore new ideas and alternative viewpoints. Reflection corresponds in a meaningful way to learning objectives. Reflection methods will vary depending on the service experience and course learning objectives. Techniques of Reflection Students maintain regular journal entries about their service experience. Journals/Log Below is a list of possible reflection activities: Students use the arts as a tool to foster thought and learning in service-learning. Artistic & Creative Activities Students submit writings from a specific prompt. Can often be used for pre/post assessment. Direct Writing For Example: A "Letter to Yourself" Pre-assessment:
At the beginning of the semester, students write a letter about their expectations or goals for the course. Post-assessment:
The instructor collects, saves, and redistributes the letters at the end of the semester for discussion. Group Discussions Students talk about their service experience with instructors, fellow students, and/or community partners. Formal Writing Deans (2000) identifies three common types of writing produced in service-learning courses: writing about, for, or with community partners. Students writing about their experiences in the community most often produce analytical or reflective academic essays. Students writing for community partners often produce practical documents such as brochures, web sites, public service announcements, trail signs, and educational curricula. Students writing with community partners may collaboratively write oral histories, life books, or more complex practical documents such as grant applications. Examples of discussion questions: How did the course material help you overcome obstacles or dilemmas in the service experience? What would it take to positively impact the situation (from individuals, communities, education, government, etc)? Did the experience contradict or reinforce course material? How has your understanding of the community issue changed as a result of your service experience? Challenging: Contextualized: Kolb (1984) built on Dewey's work, in part by integrating the educational theories of Lewin, Piaget, and Friere. Kolb's model (see below) has been further enhanced by integrating the "What?", "So What?", and "Now What?" reflection prompts developed by Virginia Campus Outreach Opportunity League (COOL) in 1995. strategies for purposeful reflection,
and methods for planning, assessing & evaluating reflection To guide students to prepare for their service; Connected: Reflection is used as a teaching tool throughout the service-learning experience and semester. This means that reflection takes place: Continuous: (Schoel, Prouty & Radcliffe, 1988) Reflection demonstrated student's knowledge by identifying and describing academic concepts that are connected to the service-learning experience.
For example: "This experience reminded me of our discussion about...." Reflection demonstrated student's ability to apply academic concepts in the context of his/her service experiences.
For example: "This is how I see this theory/concept/model in action in my service-learning experience...". Reflection demonstrated student's ability to analyze the relationship between the academic material and his/her service experience.
For example: "It seems that the difference between this theory/concept/model and my experience are due to..." Reflection demonstrated student's ability to evaluate the relevance of the course material in the context of their service.
For example: "The strength/weakness of this theory in my service experience was.... Given this evaluation, I would recommend...." For an expanded Bloom-based rubric, click here: Level 3 Student reflection...
Exhibits an awareness and understanding of multiple facets of an issue, including potentially conflicting goals and perspectives of the individuals involved.
Demonstrates understanding that actions can be situationally dependent. Student reflection...
Uses both unsupported assumptions and evidence, but is beginning to differentiate between the two.
Can provide a thorough critique from one perspective, but fails to see the broader system in which the aspect is embedded. Level 2 Level 1 Student reflection...
Focuses on examples of observed behaviors without offering insight into the reasons behind these behaviors.
May acknowledge that other perspectives exist, but will generally focus on his/her own personal perspective. For an expanded Bradley-based rubric, click here: The ability to recall learned concepts Pre-Service: During Service: To help students make curriculum connections and troubleshoot issues at their site; Post-Service: To allow students to review and reflect on their academic, personal, and professional development through the service experience. Whitney, B.C (2011) http://bit.ly/mTmoiv http://bit.ly/lJ3PKx Pre-service reflection should prepare students for their service experience. Students can be prepared through relevant training and readings, and by meeting the community partner.
During service reflection is used throughout the semester to help students to concretely connect the service experience with course learning objectives.
Post-service reflection guides students as they consider their personal and professional development through their service experience. Apply: Students apply academic concept in the context of their service experiences. This model depicts the reflection process as an integrative and cyclical event. Most reflection models are variations of this one. This model offers three different ways students can relate to and process an experience: This model offers three levels of reflection. Each reflective level progresses towards a deeper and more holistic understanding of course work and service experience. Reflection Structured and consistent opportunity for students to critically discuss and examine:
Reflection is the learning in "service-learning" Best Practices The 4 Cs Effective reflection is:
Contextualized Welch, M. (1999). The ABCs of reflection: a template for students and instructors to implement written reflection in service learning. National Society of Experiential Education Quarterly, 25(2), 23-25. Eyler, J, Giles, DE. (1996). Practitioner's guide to reflection in service-learning: student voices and reflections. Nashville, TN: Corporation for National Service. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Krathwohl, D. R. (November 01, 2002). A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy: An Overview. Theory into Practice, 41 (4), 212-218. Bringle, R. G., & Hatcher, J. A. (1999). Reflection in Service Learning: Making Meaning of Experience. Educational Horizons, 77, 4, 179-85. Eyler, J, & Giles, DE. (1996). Practitioner's guide to reflection in service-learning: student voices and reflections. Nashville, TN: Corporation for National Service. The Experiential Learning Cycle The ABC Model of Reflection: Bloom’s Taxonomy Bradley's Levels of Reflection Example: What are some possible reasons for the differences between the course material and your service experience? Example:
What are the strengths and weaknesses of this theory/model/concept in the context of your service experience? Given this evaluation, what would you recommend to improve the relevance of this theory/concept/model? Example: Identify a theory/concept/model that relates to your service experience. Example:
Explain how the previous chapter relates to what you have been experiencing in your service project. Example:
What resources and strategies would you use to evaluate the effectiveness of this service project in meeting the needs of your community partner? Example:
"The last time I visited W---- Elementary, I felt much more welcome than the first. This time several of the staff and students recognized me and were able to ask more seriously how I was doing. I also knew a few of the kids better and was able to talk to them easier. A few of the girls sat by me, very excited to tell me what they had done in school and at home. I felt happy to see them so excited to tell me about their days and such." Example:
"I did the same thing I did the last time I visited. I sat with the kids at the breakfast tables, walking around to see each table and the kids sitting there. If a child was sitting alone, I went and talked to them until others came too. I helped wash off the table and clean up after the kids headed to class, and was able to talk to the kitchen staff, which was very enjoyable." Example:
"...It’s nice to have a little background from class readings to use as a guide when working with the people in the school. I have seen several examples of how behavior in the school is related to what I’ve read." Example: How did you see this theory/concept/model in action in your service experience? Additional Resource Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Define, describe, identify, label, list, match, name, outline, recall, recognize, reproduce, select Interpret, exemplify, classify, summarize, infer, paraphrase, predict, compare, explain Execute, implement, demonstrate, apply, relate, develop, translate Differentiate, organize, attribute, analyze, compare, contrast, examine Plan, design, propose, develop, formulate, document, relate, construct Assess, compare, evaluate, argue, deduce, validate, conclude Bloom's Taxonomy:
Action Words The following key words can be helpful when developing effective reflection questions Virginia Campus Outreach Opportunity League. (1995). Reflections - A resource book. Richmond, VA: COOL. Meredith College. (2005). Service learning as part of civic engagement: Faculty guide to service learning. Unpublished manuscript, Service Learning, Meredith College, Raleigh, NC. Retrieved from http://www.meredith.edu/academics/servicelearning/facguide_final_draft-1.pdf Reflection is integral to service-learning; it provides a comfortable environment for students to explore ideas, and make connections between course material and their service experience. critically discuss the impact of their service, So - What is reflection? Reflection is a structured opportunity for students to critically examine their experiences, observations, and thoughts regarding their service experience. Additional Resource
"Structuring the Reflection Process" http://bit.ly/f8p67j Ford, J. (2008). Cycle of reflection. [Video file]. Clip retrieved from: http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=40561&title=Cycle_of_Reflection (Ford, 2008) Schoel, J. Prouty, D., & Radcliffe, P. (1988). Islands of Healing: A Guide to Adventure Based Counseling. Hamilton, MA: Project Adventure. Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. New York: Collier Books. For this assessment to be effective, it is important to clearly and effectively communicate the expected learning outcomes, and how students will be assessed. Lectures
Letter of introduction to community partners
Role playing Activity Examples: Simulations
Case studies Activity Examples: Activity Examples: The following are a few examples of ways to incorporate reflection throughout the semester. Successful reflection activities: This ends "Reflection: Theory & Practical Application"
Please take 2 minutes to complete a brief survey on this presentation by clicking on the link below: https://boisestate.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_5AW6uJvzc08iyMY If you have more questions, contact:
Kara Brascia, Director of Service-Learning
email@example.com - Knowledge
- Application - Analysis
- Evaluation - Affectively
- Cognitively Planning Reflection Assessing & Evaluating Reflection Level 1: Focuses on observed behaviors; may acknowledge that other perspectives exist, but focus on their personal perspective.
Level 2: Can provide a thorough critique from one perspective, but fails to see broader perspectives
Level 3: Exhibits an awareness and understanding of multiple facets of an issue - experiences,
-connections to course material Reflection is the learning in "service-learning". Additional Resource
"Questions for Discussion or Writing" http://bit.ly/ij9k3O Best Practices (Continued) Techniques of Reflection Journals/logs
Artistic & creative activities Eyler, J. (2001). Creating your reflection map. New Directions for Higher Education, 114, 35-43. Eyler, J. (2001). Creating your reflection map. New Directions for Higher Education, 114, 35-43.