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The Byzantine Empire and Russia

Chapter 9

Dan Priest

on 15 March 2016

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Transcript of The Byzantine Empire and Russia

Constantinople was founded in 330 A.D.
Formerly Byzantium, named after Emperor Constantine
This was 140 years before Rome collapsed
This would have been when Rome split into two empires
Many considered the Eastern empire to be “New Rome”
Justinian ruled as an
A sole ruler with complete authority
His wife, empress Theodora, was a shrewd politician and was an adviser and co-ruler
The daughter of a bear keeper, she was probably more courageous than her husband
It became Europe’s busiest marketplace.

It connected trade routes, linking Europe and Asia.
Chapter 9
1. Northern forests
Supplied lumber and furry animals
Not able to be farmed
2. Western land
Modern-day Ukraine
Where civilizations could thrive
3. Southern Steppe
Open, treeless grassland
Pasture for the herds and horses of nomadic peoples
Three Regions
The Byzantines were responsible for instigating the First Crusade
Constantinople was burned and pillaged by the West during the Fourth Crusade
The Byzantines retook the city after 57 years, but never recovered (1260s)
Soon they fell to the Ottoman Turks (1453)
The Crusades
Absolute Power Corrupts Absolutely
Hagia Sophia
"May I be damned! I've killed my son! I've killed my son!"
Ivan IV, Ivan the Great’s grandson, was officially crowned tsar in 1547 at age 17
He became really unstable soon thereafter:
He was prone to violent fits of rage
He had thousands of people killed in one city because he feared a plot against him
He even killed his own son
Created “agents of terror” to enforce his will
Ivan the Terrible died (of a stroke, while playing chess) in 1584, but his legacy lasted throughout much of Russia’s history
Greatly Terrible
During the Mongol period, the princes of the Rus region steadily increased their power.

They became patriotic defenders of Russia:
Defeated the Golden Horde in 1380

Ivan the Great, the Grand Prince of Moscow, brought much of northern Russia under his rule between 1462 and 1505:
Modeled his ideas of absolute power on the Byzantines
Referred to himself as a
Russian for Caesar
Thought of Rus as the "Third Rome"
Terribly Great
In the early 1200s, Mongols invade:
Led by Batu – grandson of Genghis Khan
“World Emperor”
Destroyed Kiev and other Russian towns
His armies were known as the
Golden Horde
Russian rulers were still in place, as long as they paid tribute to the Mongols
Mongols converted to Islam, but tolerated the Russian Orthodox Church
The Golden Horde
The Bible was translated for the Slavs in 863.
This translated language is called the
Cyrillic alphabet
, which is still used in Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, and Bulgaria
In 957, Princess Olga of Kiev converted to Byzantine Christianity:
From there, Orthodox Christianity slowly became common.
The domes of Byzantine churches evolved into Russia’s signature domes.
Russia’s name (and its historical territory) can be traced back to 862.

Rurik, a prince from a Varangian (Viking) tribe, began his rule of Novgorod in the north.
This tribe was called Rus

After Rurik’s death, Rus lands expanded and the name was lent to the growing principality.
Evolution of a Name
The Ottomans fought with the Byzantines for two months.
Upon capture, the city of Constantinople was renamed Istanbul.
Became a great center of Muslim culture.
Ottoman Empire
Byzantine eventually split from the Church over the controversy of the Holy Spirit.

Led to the
Great Schism
Byzantine Church – Greek Orthodox
Western Europe – Roman Catholic
Great Schism
Justinian also established the Byzantine emperor as a sole ruler with complete authority over both the people and the Church.

He was a monarch and Pope combined
Deemed “Christ’s co-ruler on Earth”
The Church
Peasants worked the land, paid taxes, and were soldiers.
The Byzantines relied on a secret weapon called
Greek fire
A precursor to the Molotov cocktail
Under his leadership, the Byzantines developed
Justinian’s Code
which combined and revised many old Roman laws
Influenced Western monarchs to model their laws after
Aspects of these laws are still around today
Justinian (ruled: 527 – 565)
The Byzantine Empire flourished under his vision: reconquering North Africa, Italy, etc.
All of this was lost thanks to his successors
He rebuilt Constantinople, including the Hagia Sophia
Just in Time
At the time (500-600s), known as the Slavs:
Largest city-state is
The capital of present-day Ukraine
Eventually mixed with the Vikings
Traded with the Byzantines
Siberia makes up about 77% of Russia's territory, but has only 28% (40 million people) of Russia's population.
“Holy Wisdom”
Rebuilt in 532 after the previous structure was destroyed in riots
It has served as a cathedral of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, a Roman Catholic cathedral, and an Islamic mosque
It is now a museum dedicated to the history of its shared faith space
Hagia Sophia
Byzantine emperors and empresses dressed in silk, and attended chariot games.
Horse races and other sports were featured in the Hippodrome
The Byzantine Emperor was the head of the Church, and appointed a patriarch as the high priest.
Very different from the Catholic Church
Byzantine Empire and Russia
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