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Energy for Life

How organisms get and use energy
by

Alexis Guillory

on 25 September 2012

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Transcript of Energy for Life

Trapping and Using Energy - Chemical energy stored in food is changed in cells into forms needed to perform all the activities necessary for life
All these activities involve chemical reactions
Metabolism- the total of all chemical reactions in an organism Enzymes - The chemical reactions of metabolism need enzymes
Cause change but are not changed and are reusable
Can cause molecules to join
Without the right enzymes, chemical reactions in cells cannot take place Photosynthesis - Organisms that make their own food are called producers and organisms that cannot make their own food are called consumers
- Photosynthesis- food-making process by which plants produce glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water Producing Carbohydrates - Producers that use photosynthesis contain green pigment called chlorophyll by capturing sunlight
- Carbon dioxide and water are used to produce sugar and oxygen
- Captured sunlight energy is stored in the chemical bonds that hold the sugar molecules together Storing Carbohydrates - Plants make more sugar than they need for survival
They are changed and stored as starches or used to make other carbohydrates
- Consumers take in food by eating producers or other consumers Respiration - A series of chemical reactions to release energy stored in food molecules Breaking Down Carbohydrates - Begins in the cytoplasm of the cell
Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose molecules and glucose molecules are further broken down and energy is releases
These simpler molecules are moved to the mitochondria and break down even further
This process uses oxygen, releases more energy, and produces carbon dioxide and water Fermentation - When cells do not have enough oxygen for respiration, they use fermentation
Fermentation- process by which oxygen-lacking cells and some one-celled organisms release small amounts of energy from glucose molecules and produce wastes such as alcohol, carbon dioxide, and lactic acid
- Lactic acid is why your muscles might feel stiff and sore after lots of activity These processes never move into the mitochondria, but continue to occur in the cytoplasm Fermentation (con't) - Bacteria carryout fermentation and make lactic acid
Used to produce yogurt and some cheese
Break down a sugar in milk to release energy
- Yeast cells use fermentation to break down sugar in bread dough
Produce alcohol and carbon dioxide
The carbon dioxide gas is what makes bread dough rise Related Processes - Respiration and Photosynthesis are almost opposite processes
Photosynthesis produces sugar and oxygen and respiration uses these products
Carbon dioxide and water produced during respiration are used during photosynthesis Energy of Life
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