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19th century culture

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Emmanuelle Delanoë-Brun

on 31 March 2016

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Transcript of 19th century culture

19th century culture - an overview
Great-Britain - US

A century of revolutions and expansions
Literature
Popular arts
the emergence of the show-business

Urbanization, consumption, and the rise of the popular novel
Romanticism / Transcendentalism
Gothic literature
The Industrial Revolution
The American Expansion
1760s : emergence of a textile industry (GB) - the disappearance of an agrarian world - the emergence of urban centers
1794 : the cotton gin, turning cotton into profitable crop (US)
1837 : first threshing machine patented, opening the way to mechanization in agriculture
early 19th century : development of steam power, replacing water or wind power -- fueled by coal, opening the way to larger power engines in industry and new modes transportation (locomotives, steamboats)
Coalbrookedale by Night, 1801
Philip James de Loutherbourgh
Social consequences
1803 - Louisiana purchase
1893 - the end of the frontier
Urban growth
Gustave Doré,
London: A Pilgrimage
, 1872
Construction of the District Line, 1866-73
Three Urchins Huddling for Warmth in Window Well on NY's Lower East Side, 1889
Liverpool population, 1801 to 2001

5 cents lodgings, 1889
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives, 1890
Bandits' Roost
New modes of transportation : a double decker
The emergence of a consumer society
1846-48 - Mexican - American War
1849 - Gold found in the Klondike (California)
1860-61 - The Poney Express
1860s - Railroad expansion
1869 - Transcontinental junction at Promontory Summit, Utah
1862 - Homstead Act
The great fact was the land itself, which seemed to overwhelm the little beginnings of human society that struggled in its sombre wastes. It was from facing this vast hardness that the boy's mouth had become so bitter; because he felt that men were too weak to make any mark here, that the land wanted to be let alone, to preserve its own fierce strength, its peculiar, savage kind of beauty, its uninterrupted mournfulness.
Willa Cather,
O Pioneers
, 1913
160 acres land grants
5 year residence
21 years old and over
only provision : that land be improved
1860 - Abraham Lincoln
1861-1865 - the Civil War
Gettysburg - 1-3 July 1863
The years 1815 to 1914 are referred to as Britain's imperial century, and at this time, the Empire included over 14 million square miles of territory and 450 million people. It included more than a quarter of the world's population and it was said that the sun never set on the British Empire, a phrase attributed to a Scottish writer, John Wilson. With supremacy at sea, Britain took on the role of global policeman, sometimes called the Pax Britannica. As well as having formal control over its own colonies, with a dominant position in world trade Britain could effectively control the economies of many countries including China, Argentina and Siam.
The Victorian School, http://www.victorianschool.co.uk/empire.html
The British Empire
Intellectual revolutions
1859 - The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin
The rise of advertisment, on billboards and in magazines
Newspapers
1800 : ± 50 London Newspapers, 100 other papers
gradual abolition printing taxes (UK)
introduction cheap postal services
1850s : circulation English newspapers over 120,000,000

Periodicals
UK : 19th century : over 125,000 periodicals
The press and magazines
The Bayswater Omnibus
, George A. Joy, 1895
Literary Magazines and serialization
Charles Dickens, 1812 - 1870
The death of Little Nell,
The Old Curiosity Shop
, 1841
large rural - urban migration

urbanisation
explosion middle class
dominant conservative ideology industry, family, restraint
shattering of community structures
explosion poverty
slavery (US)
child labour
working for shoe polish factory at age 12, after father imprisoned for debts. Intimate knowledge of poverty and child labour, for a few months
15 : working as clerk
starting his writing career as a journalist, then editor
1836 - commissionned to write
The Pickwick Papers
. Great success
double-decker novels (two volumes)
triple-decker novels (three volumes)
US magazines and dime novels
1860 - Beadley's dime novels
Documenting the West, new American figures, exotic heroes
1850 - Launching Harper's Monthly Magazine
1870 - Scribner's Monthly Magazine
Images and fine arts
The Victorian Novel
natural (and social) determinism
man's struggle within his environment
attacking the ideology of "propriety"of a massively bourgeois and conservative world
The American novel
reaction to the sentimental novel and to the philosophy of Enlightenment of the late 18th century
reaction to the emerging ideology of entrepeneurship and progress, to the utilitarian philosophy dominant round the turn of the century
a literature of ancient times and improper impulses unleashed in maze-like ruins and castles - the resurgence of the repressed
1794
1764

1796
- persecuted heroines, damsels in distress
- tyrannic, scheming villains, motivated by greed and/or lust, erotic obsession
- high sentiment and adventures : terror, narrow escapes, violence and death
- supernatural manifestations
- failing structures (family, church, social environment...), attacked by evil forces
Wilkie Collins, 1824-1889
Two tours in America, giving readings and lectures - the novelist as cultural star
2005
2009
1998, Alfonso Cuaron
2008
2012, Mike Newel
2011, BBC
2011 BBC publicity stunt
A Publisher's history of American Magazines,
Horatio Alger
1832-1899
"rags to riches stories"
Wuthering Heights
Emily Brontë, 1847
1939, William Wyller
1991, Peter Kominsky
2011, Andrea Arnold
Jane Eyre
, Charlotte Brontë, 1847
BBC 2006
Cary Fukunaga, 2011
19th century spoofs
1817
Frankenstein
Mary Shelley, 1818
mad science and technology, human hubris
Dracula
Bram Stoker, 1898
Sexual predation in an hyper conservative society, tale of morbid fascination
James Whale
Boris Karloff, 1931
Todd Browning
Bela Lugosi, 1931
Romanticism

a reaction against the dominant belief in progress, rationality, and materialism of the Industrial revolution
concentrating on individual self and sentiment, valuing emotions and perceptions, sensory responses, over rationality and science
responding with fascination and anxiety to the new turn of the times
seeking sublime, superior aesthetic experience, in magnified nature
promoting the imagination, fancy, and creativity -
politically ambiguous: liberal, refuting authority and tyranny, idealizing the common man, yet valuing aristocratic mind and knowledge
Transcendentalism
the 1st American philosophical and intellectual movement
resonant with the recent spirit of American independence
imbibed with ideology expansion and discovery, even technological and urban evolution (rather than imagination)
seeking a form of political, social and cultural rejuvenation
intellectual movement anchored in search for intellectual acuteness and virginity, for a renewal of thought, anchored in self-examination and experience (self-reliance)
grounded in nature as seat of experience and truth of perception
William Wordsworth, 1770-1850
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 1772-1834
Lord Byron, 1788-1824
John Keats, 1795-1821
2009
Percy Bysshe Shelley
1792-1822
Mary Shelley
1797-1851
Anne Brontë
1820-1849
Emily Brontë 1816-1855
Charlotte Brontë 1818-1848
Ralph Waldo Emerson
1803-1882
Henry David Thoreau
1817-1862
Walden Pond
Emily Dickinson
1830-1886
Walt Whitman, 1819-1892
Roger Corman adaptations
Edgar Allan Poe
1809-1849
The Scarlet Letter, 1850
Victor Sjöström, Lillian Gish, 1926
Nathaniel Hawthorne
1804-1864
Herman Melville
1819-1891
1850-59 editor of the
Household Words
, with Wilkie Collins
1859-95 editor
All the Year Round
1837-39 Serialization
Oliver Twist
, with
Bentley's Miscellanies
George Cruikshank, illustrator
Billy Budd
, Benjamin Britten, 1951
Terence Malick
Badlands
, 1973
Days of Heaven
, 1978
The Thin Red Line
, 1998
The New World
, 2005
The Tree of Life
, 2011
Jane Austen, 1775-1817
Gloria Swanson as Norma Desmond,
Sunset Boulevard, Billy Wilder, 1950
The condition of women
The condition of literature
Moral choice and nature of sentiment
Social sarcasm and irony

From novelist to cultural product
Ang Lee, 1998
BBC 2011
1996
2005
2009
George Eliot, 1818-1880
Mary Ann Evans
Editor to
Westminster Review
Translator
Major intellectural figure
1859
1860
1871-72
William Makepeace Thackeray
1811-1863
A Novel Without a Hero
BBC 1998
Mira Nair 2004
Tom Wolfe
The Bonefire of the Vanities
27 instalments, Rolling Stone, July 1984 - August 1985
Thomas Hardy, 1840-1928
tales of characters broken by the constraints of Victorian beliefs and the onset of modernity, of spirits crushed, of a disappearing pastoral world
1996
Aspirations devastated by lust, love, self-interest, and social judgement
1979
1998 - 2008
Rudyard Kipling, 1865-1936
1894
1888 - 1975, John Huston
"The White Man's Burden", 1899
Joseph Conrad, 1857-1924
1899
1900
Washington Irving, 1783-1859
Francis Ford Coppola,1979
1819
1820 - 1999
Questioning American fledgeling society
Creating an American mythology
Examining American tensions between aspiration to provincialism and conservatism, and experimentation
Examining community and resistance to change
Fennimore Cooper, 1789-1851
The American frontier and wilderness
Seeking the new American Adam
Pitting civilisation against the wild Indian
Sense of nostalgia for an endangered pastoral
Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1811-1896
"So you're the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war." (1862)
Uncle Tom's Cabin contributed to the outbreak of war by personalizing the political and economic arguments about slavery. Stowe's informal, conversational writing style inspired people in a way that political speeches, tracts and newspapers accounts could not. Uncle Tom's Cabin helped many 19th-century Americans determine what kind of country they wanted.
Immediately after its publication,
Uncle Tom's Cabin
was both lauded as an achievement and attacked as inaccurate:
The most liberal abolitionists felt the book was not strong enough in its call to immediately end slavery, disliked Stowe's tacit support of the colonization movement, and suggested that Stowe's main character Tom was not forceful enough.
More moderate anti-slavery advocates and reformers praised the book for putting a human face on those held in slavery, emphasizing the impact slavery had on families, and helping the public understand and empathize with the plight of enslaved mothers.
Pro-slavery forces claimed that slavery was sanctioned in the Bible, that Tom was too noble, and accused Stowe of fabricating unrealistic, one-sided images of Southern slavery.

Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens)
1835-1910
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, 1876
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, 1885
1872
1883
1869
Reading tours
Novelist as entertainer
International star
1907 : Oxford honorary degree
Henry James, 1843-1916
Ian Softley, 1997
Jane Campion, 1996
2009
American innocence
The puzzle of sentiments
The refinements of the soul
The cruelties of relationships
Doubt, uncertainty, seeking one's own course in a maze of feeings and sensed obligations
Women's quest for intellectual and sentimental independance
Reflectors (literary technique)
Kate Chopin, 1850-1904
Alice Liddel, by Lewis Carroll, 1858
Lewis Carroll, 1832-1898
Alice in Wonderland, 1865
Through the Looking Glass, 1871
1951
2010 - Tim Burton
Fashion icon : Annie Lebowitz "Alice in Wonderland photo shoot, Vogue 2003
2013 TV show
The cognomen of Crane was not inapplicable to his person. He was tall, but exceedingly lank, with narrow shoulders, long arms and legs, hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves, feet that might have served for shovels, and his whole frame most loosely hung together. His head was small, and flat at top, with huge ears, large green glassy eyes, and a long snipe nose, so that it looked like a weather-cock, perched upon his spindle neck, to tell which way the wind blew. He is tall, skinny, with a huge nose like a beak, and huge feet like a webbed duck's. Sounds like a crane to us.
2012
Treme, season one, HBO, 2010
The invention of photography
Responding to change
Resisting change : the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Ophelia
, 1852
Beate Beatrix
, 1870
Prosperine
, 1874
William Holman Hunt
,
Our English Coast
s, 1852
Edward Burn-Jones
, The Beguiling of Merlin, 1874
A Hugenot on Saint Bartholomew's Day
, 1852
John Everett Millais
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement
Embrassing change : William Turner
1952
Oscar Wilde, 1854-1900
1890
1945
2009
1775-1851
Snow Storm: Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps
, 1812
Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway
, 1844
George Caleb Bingham, 1811-1879
Fur Traders Descending the Missouri, 1845
Boatmen on the Missouri, 1846
Albert Bierstadt, 1830-1902
Indian Spear Fishing, 1862
Lake Tahoe, 1868
George Catlin, 1796-1872
Buffalo Hunt, 8844
White Cloud, Head Chief of the Iowas, 1844-45
1839 : Louis Daguerre presenting developing process before French Académie des sciences
Would-be photographers refining photographic plates, photography becoming a scientific and artistic hobby to the upper middle class
1884 : George Eastman developing the film negative, making it possible to work with smaller photographic equipments.
1888 : 1st Eastman Kodak cameras put on the market
Julia Margaret Cameron, 1815-1879
Pomona 1872
The Kiss of Peace 1869
Beatrice 1866
Edward S. Curtis, 1868-1952
The Vanishing Race, 1904
An Oasis in the Badlands, 1905
Medecine Crow, 1908
Timothy O'Sullivan, Shoshone Falls, Idaho, 1868
Timothy O'Sullivan, White House Ruins, Canyon de Chelly National Monument, 1873
Variety shows
1864, Oxford Music Hall
1857
1900
Barnum, Ringling Bros, and traveling shows
P. T. Barnum, 1810-1891
from freak-show to show runner

--> the Feedjee mermaid / General Tom Thumb
Recreation (and other) parks
Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill, 1885
Queen Victoria's Jubilee, 1887
Annie Oakley, 1860-1926
Irving Berlin, 1946
John Huston
1956
The Wild West Show
1883-1913
Luna Park, Coney Island, 1905
Central Park, 1857
Frederick Law Olmsted, 1822-1903
Art Museums
Victoria and Albert Museum, 1852
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1872
Emmanuelle Delanoë-Brun, MCF
Université Paris Didero
t
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