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World History - Unit 1, Chapter 14: The Beginnings of Our Global Age: Europe, Africa, and Asia 1415-1796
Transcript of World History - Unit 1, Chapter 14: The Beginnings of Our Global Age: Europe, Africa, and Asia 1415-1796
The Beginnings of Our Global Age:
Europe, Africa, and Asia
Motivations for Exploring the Seas
The Search for Spices
Before we get started I want to ask you a couple of questions...
We have talked a lot about religion in the last chapter...so...what role do you think religion will play in the Age of Exploration?
How about this...Which of the following do you agree with?
A. Spreading religion is a valid reason for conquering other people.
B. Obtaining wealth is a valid reason for conquering other people.
C. Spreading democracy is a valid reason for conquering other people.
D. There are no valid reasons for conquering other people.
Increase in European population which led to an increased demand for goods.
The most valued good Europeans wanted was spices used to preserve food, add flavor to meat, and make medicines and perfumes.
The main location of all these spices was in the Moluccas, an island chain in present-day Indonesia, which the Europeans then called the Spice Islands.
Portugal Sails East
Portugal, Prince Henry, and Africa
Prince Henry saw great promise in Africa and he wanted to achieve a number of different goals there...
Convert Africans who practiced tribal religions or Islam to Christianity.
Find the sources of riches the Muslim traders controlled.
Map the African coast in order to find an easier way to Asia and to the Spice Islands.
Bartholomeu Dias rounded the southern tip of Africa in 1488 which opened up a new route to Asia.
Mapping the African coast was done by cartographers. Cartographers are people who make maps. So cartography is the study and practice of making maps.
In 1497, Vasco da Gama went further than Dias...he went all the way around Africa and then kept traveling all the way to India!
Da Gama then traded for spices and returned home. He lost half of his ships and many sailors died but the trip was very profitable for da Gama.
After returning home and selling the spices he immediately got together a new set of ships and a crew and sailed back to India.
Once he returned to India he forced a treaty with the ruler of the port city he landed at and set up his own port. This port bought spices and stored them for future Portuguese fleets.
Columbus Sails West
Christopher Columbus wanted to reach the East Indies (a group of islands in Southeast Asia).
Columbus knew the Earth was round so he wanted to sail around the world going west instead of east...but he didn't know that two continents (North America and South America)
Columbus thought the world looked like this...
But it actually looked like this...
Columbus sailed for several weeks before finding land but he did eventually find the islands of the Caribbean.
Columbus was convinced that he was in India and called the inhabitants of the islands "Indians."
Once the discovery of the new world was known other countries wanted in on it!
Pope Alexander VI set a Line of Demarcation, dividing the non-European world into two zones. Spain and Portugal were allowed to split the new world together.
The Search for a Direct Route Continues
In 1519 Ferdinand Magellan set out to find a way to reach the Pacific Ocean and to find a direct route to Asia.
After months and months of sailing he was able to find a way around South America and sail into the Pacific Ocean.
He then sailed onto Asia believing it would only take 3 weeks...4 months later he arrived in the Philippines.
Then after almost 3 years after setting out one ship and 18 survivors reached Spain, the place where they had begun their journey.
These survivors were the first people to circumnavigate, or sail around, the world.
One of the survivors said: "I believe of a certainty that no one will ever again make such a voyage."
The Spice Trade and the Age of Exploration:
What are items or goods that are of great value in today's world?
Who controls those things?
Where are they located?
What keeps people from obtaining those things?
Throughout history there are different types of goods that are valuable and people will take action or do something to get those goods.
Why did Europeans find potentially dangerous sea routes preferable to overland routes?
They were quicker.
They eliminated Arab middlemen.
They allowed Europeans to get goods more cheaply by going straight to the source.
What motivated Prince Henry to make overseas exploration one of his goals?
He wanted to make Portugal a world power.
He hoped to convert people to Christianity.
So why do you think European monarchs would fund such risky voyages by navigators?
They were willing to take risks in exchange for the possibility of claiming new lands, finding a northwest passage or discovering sources of wealth.
Turbulent Centuries in Africa
European Footholds in South and Southeast Asia
Encounters in East Asia
Portugal Builds and Eastern Empire
After the Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama made it around the southern tip of Africa many other Portuguese explorers followed in his footsteps.
The Portuguese seized islands and land around India and southern Asia by force.
They burned cities and took control of islands and large amounts of land through military force and then set up military bases.
Often the Portuguese specifically targeted Muslims.
The Portuguese wanted to set up outposts to resupply and repair ships along the sea route to the Spice Islands and other centers of trade.
The Portuguese also attempted to convert the people of these regions to Christianity.
The Portuguese attacked Muslims and destroyed Hindu temples...they were not very successful in converting non-Christians.
Rise of the Dutch
Mughal India and European Traders
In 1599, the first Dutch fleet returned with a large amount of pepper, cloves, and other spices which opened up a flurry of overseas trading and activity.
The Dutch had a strategic settlement at Cape Town which gave them a big advantage over other European countries at this time.
In 1602, a group of wealthy Dutch merchants formed the Dutch East India Company.
This group was incredibly powerful because unlike other traders they had full sovereign powers to build armies, wage war, negotiate peace treaties, and govern overseas territory.
The Dutch came to dominate sea trade in the mid to late 1600's. Just as the Portuguese before them, the Dutch used military force to advance their trading goals but they also formed relationships with local rulers.
Mughal India was the center of the spice trade and it was a leader in textile manufacturing, exporting large quantities of silk and cotton cloth.
The Mughal empire was larger, richer, and more powerful than any kingdom in Europe at this time.
The rulers of India saw no threat in the Europeans so they allowed them to build forts and warehouses in Indian coastal towns.
But as the Mughal empire collapsed the Europeans stepped in to take control.
Trading companies like the British East Trading Company raised their own army from the Indian population to control large areas.
Many different countries fought for control of India but Great Britain was able to gain control of most of the country. They would control most of India from the late 1700's to the mid 1900's.
In 1511, a Portuguese fleet commanded by Afonso de Albuquerque dropped anchor off Malacca, a rich Islamic trading port that controlled the sea route linking India, Southeast Asia, and China. The fleet remained at anchor for several weeks before opening fire. According to a Malaysian account:
"The cannon balls came like rain. And the noise
of the cannon was as the noise of thunder in the heavens and the flashes of fire of their guns were like flashes of lightning in the sky: and the noise of their matchlocks [guns] was like that of groundnuts [peanuts] popping in the frying pan."
How did European nations build empires in South and Southeast Asia? Think about this question throughout this Prezi.
Why were the Dutch more successful than the Portuguese at establishing a long-term presence in this region?
Because they focused on establishing permanent colonies with close ties to the local people and they concentrated on trade and not on missionary work.
European Contact with Ming China
China was very advanced, even more advanced in most areas than Europeans at this time.
China had better textiles (clothing) and goods made of metal but the Europeans wanted the Chinese silks and porcelain. So what could they trade?
How do you think this would affect trade?
The Chinese didn't want anything the Europeans had to offer so they demanded gold or silver.
The Ming allowed Europeans to trade with the Chinese but they put time and location restrictions on them. What does that say about the trading relationship between Chinese and Europeans?
The Chinese also allowed missionaries into their country. They let missionaries into the country to learn about the Renaissance in Europe.
The Manchu Conquest
Foreign Traders in Japan
Unlike other regions in Asia, Japan welcomed Westerners at least at first.
Missionaries came to Japan too and the Japanese seemed curious about Christianity and a number of them converted to Christianity.
However the Tokugawa shoguns, or Japanese rulers, grew increasingly hostile to foreigners because they were concerned that Japanese Christians would become loyal to the Pope and not to their country. Also, the Japanese rulers were concerned that Europeans would try to take over their country.
The Japanese rulers barred all European merchants, forbade Japanese people from traveling abroad, and even outlawed foreign trade.
This isolation continued for over 200 years!
Japan was virtually cut off from the outside world...
The Ming dynasty lost control of China and a new set of rulers came to power and the Qing dynasty began.
Under the Qing rulers the Chinese economy expanded, new crops were introduced and flourished and China's population exploded from 140 million in 1740 to 300 million in 1800!
The Chinese emperor, after being insulted by a British ambassador, began to reject contact with Europeans and ignored Europe almost entirely.