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Causes and Effects of Rwandan Genocide, 1994

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Devika Godbole

on 10 February 2014

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Transcript of Causes and Effects of Rwandan Genocide, 1994

Cause and Effects of the Rwandan Genocide, 1994
The Rwandan genocide is historically one of the shortest yet also bloodiest genocides of all time.
The genocide lasted only 100 days, but in that short time span an estimated 500,000-1,000,000 people were killed.

Approximately 20% of the country's population.
This is a clip about a Rwanda survivor:
http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=2258246n
In the small central African country of Rwanda, there was a deep running history of tension between the two major ethnic groups; the Hutus and the Tutsis. When the Belgian colonists settled in Rwanda in 1916, they created identity cards that specified the two ethnicity groups. The Belgians originally considered the Tutsis superior to the Hutus. The Belgians found it easier to enforce Tutsi superiority because they were the majority population. When Belgium granted Rwanda their independence in 1962, the Hutus took over.
In the after math of the genocide, the Rwandan government refused to call it a
genocide
; instead insisting that it was merely a
civil war.
Rwanda originally had
two ethnic groups
:
*
Hutu
- they were the
farmers
*
Tutsi
- they were
cattle farmers
The Germans took control
Lost control after WWI
Belgium gained control
All got along until 19th century.
*1959 marked the end of the Kings of Rwanda and resulted in 'The Hutu Revolution' killing 20,000 Tutsis
*1963-1967 about 100,000 Tutsis killed with machetes
Hutus targeted the Tutsis long before 1994
President Habyarimana's plane is shot down after he signed a peace treaty with the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). Still unsure who did it, but Hutus automatically blamed the Tutsis. This was the perfect excuse the Hutus needed to begin the massacre.
April 6, 1994
Hutus created "The Ten Commandments"
-Was a list of rules against Tutsis
1). A Hutu is a traitor if he:
a). marries a Tutsi woman
b). befriends a Tutsi woman
c). hires a Tutsi woman as a secretary or concubine
8). Every Hutu should stop having mercy on the Tutsi
6. The majority of the education sector, i.e. school pupils, students, teachers, must be Hutu.
10. The Social Revolution of 1959, the Referendum of 1961 and Hutu ideology must be taught at every level to every Hutu. Every Hutu must spread this ideology widely. Every Hutu who persecutes his Hutu brother because he has read, spread and taught this ideology is a traitor.
"
Interahamwe
" (Kinyarwanda word meaning "
those who attack together
") was a gang that was trained to hate and kill Tutsis.

Rwandan Genocide= Interahamwe vs. RPF
The Tutsis were favored originally by the Belgians because they looked more "European", with a lighter skin tone and sharper nose.
-
800,000
to
1 million
Tutsis were killed in
100 days
-
More than 6
men, women and children were
murdered every minute
of every hour of every day
-The
'Hotel Rwanda'
hid
1,268 people
, that many people would have been killed in approximately
4 hours
-Between
250,000
and
500,000
women were
raped

-
More than 67%
of women who were raped were infected with
HIV
or
AIDS
-
75,000
survivors were
orphaned
The UN's Involvement
1-3 were Tusti
7-9 were Hutu
Two years before the outbreak of the genocide, the U.N. deployed 2,500 troops in Rwanda. They observed the tension and informed the international community of the massacre that would surely occur.
In August of 1994 the Tutsi RPF group lead by Kagame retook the capital and soon after, the rest of the country, ending the genocide. When the Hutus discovered their reign had ended they feared Tutsi backlash and about 2 million Hutus fled the country into neighboring countries such as Burundi, Uganda, Tanzania, and Zaire. This mass exodus was referred to as the Great Lakes Refugee Crisis.
Rwandan Refugees Camp in Zaire UN referred to as "a Revision of Hell"
-Hutus were the instigators
- Likely that about 1/2 of the deaths during the Rwandan killings were Hutus
- Rwanda was a very poor country to begin with so most of the killings were done by the closest tools they could find:
-Machete
-Hippopotamus Hide Whip
-Knives
-Spears
Stereotypical

-He believed the Tutsis were a lost tribe of Christians and thus carried the noble blood line

-Whereas he believed the Hutus were descendants of Noah's son Ham who committed sin and was cursed by his father.


*Hutu and Tutsi status was passed down from the father and when the killings began children of mixed marriages were of their father status so those with a Hutu father and a Tutsi mother lived, while those with a Tutsi father and a Hutu mother were killed.
* It is said that under Belgian control things became so separated that Belgians actually sent scientists to Rwanda to measure the nose lengths of Hutus and Tutsis

*The result of their studies: Tutsi noses are on average.... 2.5 milimeters longer than a Hutus
The legacy of the genocide lives in the families that were torn apart.
-
1 in 4
households in Rwanda are now headed by children, the eldest sibling
-about
20,000
children were conceived of rape during the genocide
-Women and children who were raped or conceived in rape (and are now HIV positive because of it) have been rejected by their families
-the population or Rwanda is now
70% female
Sadi Bugingo
(47yrs old)-
*Accused of taking part of the

killing

of

2,000 people
(mostly Tutsi)
*Plead "
not guilty
"
*Trial in

Norway
*He has a max. sentence of

21 years

in prison

Trails are still going on today.
The stereotype of "tall, light, superior, Tutsis, and short, dark, inferior, Hutus" came from a British explorer John Hanning Speke who discovered the Rwandan tribes in the 1800's.
Now, because of marriage between the two, and the progression of time, it is almost impossible to differentiate between them.
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