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Chapter 2: Issue and Conclusion

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on 14 January 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 2: Issue and Conclusion

The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid.
Major kinds of evidence include:
Major kinds of evidence include:
Intuition (your own values, reasons, understanding of an issue)
Personal experience (firsthand interpretation of your issue)
Testimonials (secondhand interpretation of your issue, interviews are one example)
Appeals to authorities (sources on your issue, could include a survey)
Personal observations (of individuals dealing with the issue)
Case examples (studies on individuals dealing with the issue)
Research studies
Analogies (general or common comparative narratives about the issue)
Descriptive Issues
Questions about the way the world is, was, or is going to be


How much will health care cost in 2016?
What is the common cause of domestic violence?
Is Paxil and effective way to treat depression?
A conclusion is the message that the speaker or writer wishes you to accept.
A question or controversy responsible for the conversation or discussion. It is the stimulus of what is being said.

One must be careful not to think there is only one way to state and issue.

Critical thinkers need to understand the background of the person they are receiving information from. What is the speaker/author reacting to?
Chapter 2: Issue and Conclusion
Prescriptive Issues
Those issues that raise questions about what we should do or what is right or wrong, good or bad.

Should the United States and its allies pull out of the Middle East?
What ought to be done about the unemployment in North America?
Must we increase border security in order to prevent terrorism?
How to Find a Conclusion
Ask what the issue is (conclusion is response to issue)
Look for indicator words (consequently, therefore, suggests that, thus, proves that)
Look in likely locations (beginning or end of essay or statement)
Remember what a conclusion is not (examples, statistics, definitions, background information, and evidence)
Check the context of the communication and the author's/speaker's background
Ask the question "and therefore"
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