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The Cold War
Transcript of The Cold War
Policies that Changed the World
US/USSR Relationships during WWII
Before the end of WWII, Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt met at Yalta to plan what should happen when the war ended. They agreed on many points:
The establishment of the United Nations
Division of Germany into four zones
Why would they do this?
Free elections allowed in the states of Easter Europe
How did that work out?
Russia's promise to join the war against Japan
No Agreement was reached in Poland
Going in different Directions:
Post WWII/Cold War Goals for US:
* In 1947, America promised it would support free countries to to help fight communism. The US would provide political, economic, and military aid to any democratic nation to fend off authoritarian threats
* The Truman Doctrine was significant because it showed that America, the most powerful democratic country, was prepared to resist the spread of communism throughout the world
**Officially moved the US from an isolationist nation to a nation actively involved in foreign conflict
1. Identify 2 agreements that the Allied powers came to
at the Yalta Conference.
2. Identify 1 goal of BOTH the Soviet Union and the US
during the Cold War.
3. What was the primary goal of the Marshall Plan?
4. What power did the US get from the Eisenhower
5. Between NATO, and the Warsaw Pact, which of these
organizations is still active today?
US/Soviet goals during and after WWII
The Truman Doctrine
The Marshall Plan
NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
Winston Churchill (England), Franklin Roosevelt (US) and Joseph Stalin (USSR) meet in Yalta in 1945 to decide the fate of post-war Europe.
Promote open markets for US goods to prevent another depression
Promote democracy throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa
Stop the spread of communism
Post WWII/Cold War Goals for USSR
Create greater security for itself
Lost tens of millions of people in WWII and Stalin's purges
feared a strong Germany
Establish defensible boarders
Encourage friendly governments on its boarders
Spread communism around the world
* In 1947, US Secretary of State Marshall announced the Marshall Plan
* This was a massive economic aid plan for Europe to help it recover from the damage caused by the war
* There were two motives:
*Helping Europe to recover economically would provide markets for American goods, so benefiting American industry
* A prosperous Europe would be better able to resist the spread of communism. This was probably the main motive
The Eisenhower Doctrine was announced in a speech to Congress on January 5, 1957.
It required Congress to yield its war-making power to the president so that the President could take immediate military action.
It created a US commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country.
The doctrine was made in response to the possibility of war, threatened as a result of the USSR’s attempt to use the Suez War as a pretext to enter Egypt.
The British and French withdrawals from their former colonies created a power vacuum that communists were trying to fill.
British and French involvement and support to Israel enticed the Soviet Union as every land grab was a way to spread political influence.
President Eisenhower with his Secretary of State John Dulles
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the western nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to coordinate their defense against USSR
It originally consisted of:
Since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, some former Soviet republics have applied for membership to NATO
Is NATO still around today?
Warsaw Pact: organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe.
Established May 14, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland
USSR established it in response to NATO treaty
Albania (left in 1961 as a result of the Sino-Soviet split)
East Germany (1956)
Is this still around?