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Social 7 - Unit 2: Towards Confederation
Transcript of Social 7 - Unit 2: Towards Confederation
Before Confederation Chapter 5
War and British Conquest Chapter 6
The United States Breaks Away Chapter 7
The Great Migration and the Push for Democracy Chapter 8
Confederation The Struggle for Acadia The Great Migration Confederation Leaders Our Canada
Origins - Peoples - Perspectives American War of Independence Loyalist Migration Challenges Created ... The War of 1812 After 1763, Britain was deeply in debt because of the Seven Years' War and decided to raise the taxes in the Thirteen Colonies to keep troops stationed there. The colonists refused to pay. They claimed that Britain had no authority because they didn't allow colonists to elect representatives to the British parliament. In 1775, the protests turned into rebellion. In 1776, the United States declared itself independent of Britain and began a war called the American War of Independence, or the American Revolution. This war lasted until 1783 and divided the communities in the Thirteen Colonies. Those that supported the rebellion called themselves "Patriots" and those that opposed the rebellion called themselves the "United Empire Loyalists". During and after the war, many people who supported British rule left the Thirteen Colonies for the British colonies of Quebec and Nova Scotia. Most of these people called themselves Loyalists and most had British ancestors; however, it also included black Loyalists, Haudenosaunee people and German Mennonites. The Loyalists began to ask Britain for British laws and customs in Quebec, which concerned many Canadiens. What about their rights under the Quebec Act of 1774 - rights that protected French laws and customs? Would the arrival of Loyalists endanger these rights? The Loyalists were mostly farmers and their arrival changed how Britain negotiated treaties with First Nations. Before the Loyalists, Britain negotiated treaties of "peace and friendship." After the Loyalists arrived, however, Britain negotiated treaties as a way to take over land for settlement. The St. John River colonists petitioned Britain for their own colony, separate from Nova Scotia. With Canadiens... With
First Nations... In 1812, the Napoleonic Wars in Europe triggered a conflict in North America.
* As part of its war against France, Britain shut down trade
between the France and United States.
* It blocked American ships from landing at French ports.
* The British navy also began boarding American ships,
looking for British deserters. To retaliate, the U.S. declared war on the nearest piece of British territory: British North America (BNA), now known as Canada. The Americans invaded BNA, expecting the colonists of BNA to join them in their fight against British rule but instead the colonists fought back. When the war began Chief Tecumseh began to organize First Nations to support the British against the Americans. This war united the diverse peoples of BNA because the Canadiens, British Canadians and First Nations fought alongside one another for a common cause: to prevent an American takeover of their lands. After the War of 1812, Britain and the United States agreed to settle the boundary between BNA and U.S. peacefully through a series of treaties, ending in 1846. We still respect this boundary today. Why it all began ... Which resulted in ... How it ended ... How does the emergence of the United States shape Canada?
What challenges of coexistence arose from the Loyalist migration?
How did people meet those challenges?
Did the War of 1812 help Canada develop its unique identity? Focus Questions 1763 1775 1776 1783 in debt: to owe money refugee: a person who seeks protection in another country to escape danger in their own country genealogist: a person who researches family trees lineage: ancestry or family line migration: movement of people from one region of a territory to another petition: to ask for something in a formal way revolution: a rapid, often violent change in a system of government reserve: an area of land set aside by a treaty (agreement) for the use of a First Nation assimilation: the process of becoming part of a different cultural group immigration: the process of people establishing homes and citizenship in a country that is not their native country republican government: a government that has no monarch and that is usually elected VOCABULARY ... France and Britain Acadia was in a strategic position. It meant a base for attacking each other and for protecting their own colonies and trade routes.
... the Acadians and Mi'kmaq it formed part of their homeland. What Acadia Meant To... Background on Acadia France had established settlements in Acadia since 1604. Britain took control of Acadia in 1713 because they had won the War of the Spanish Succession in Europe against France. The Treaty of Utrecht gave Britain control of Acadia as part of the terms for peace. "Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not conquered us! We are not your slaves. These lakes, these woods, and mountains were left to us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance; and we will part with them to none." The Great Deportation In 1713, when Britain took control of Acadia, they told the Acadians to leave within a year; however, many Acadians stayed because they didn't want to give up their farms and settlements. In 1730, the British required the Acadians to take an oath that required them to stay netural, "oath of neutrality", if a war between Britain and France broke out. In 1755, a war seemed likely and the British wanted the Acadians to sign a new oath, an "oath of allegiance", that stated the Acadians would fight for Britain in a war against France. When the Acadians refused, Britain decided to deport them. Between 1755 and 1763, Britain captured and shipped eleven thousand Acadians to the Thirteen Colonies, Britain and France. 1713 1730 1755 1763 The Seven Years' War How it started ... The defining moment ... How it ended ... In 1754, fighting broke out between Britain and France to control the Ohio Valley, which was along the boundary of the Thirteen Colonies. In 1756, the war went global and nine countries chose which side they were going to support. In 1760, Britain seized Quebec, which was an important victory; however, it did not end the war. They began to fight and many people had lost their lives. Eventually both sides agreed to end the war in peace by deciding on terms in the "Treaty of Paris". France gave up almost all its claims to North America under the treaty. The Battle of the Plains of Abraham had to stop during the winter because the armies had run out of supplies. When the St. Lawrence cleared of ice, both sides began watching the river hoping that their ship would arrive first with supplies. It was the British ships that arrived first. France had sent ships, but bad weather had turned them back. The French army returned to Montreal. A few months later, in April 1760, the army returned to Quebec and defeated the British at the Battle of Sainte-Foy. The British retreated into the city of Quebec, where the French surrounded them. The British began to run out of supplies. Chief Pontiac Words of Minweweh After Britain took possession of French claims in North America in 1763, Pontiac organized an alliance of First Nations to oppose Britain's takeover. They surrounded Fort Detroit, trapping the British soldiers inside. Pontiac signed an agreement in 1765, in which the British acknowledged that their defeat of France did not give them rights to First Nations land. Royal Proclamation
of 1763 This was Britain's attempt to establish lasting peace in it North American colonies. It was issued just months after Pontiac began to organize First Nations' resistance to British rule. Establishing the Province of Quebec with a British-style government similar to the governments in the Thirteen Colonies.
Disallowing Catholics from holding positions in government.
Abolishing French civil law (relationship between habitants and seigneurs which helped support the Catholic Church)
Encouraging settlers from the Thirteen Colonies to move into the province of Quebec. Aimed to assimilate Canadiens by: Aimed to make peace with First Nations by: Establishing a "proclamation line" separating the Thirteen Colonies from "Indian Territory" which meant no settlement, British or First Nation, could occur on "Indian Territory" until both parties had come to an agreement about these lands. Quebec Act of 1774 By 1774, the Canadien population of Quebec was greater and there were very few British people who still lived in the country. Britain decided to return to the Canadiens some rights that the Royal Proclamation of 1763 had taken away. They did this by passing the Quebec Act. Allowed Catholic people in Quebec to practice their religion.
Allowed Canadiens to hold government positions, once they had taken an oath of loyalty to Britain.
Reinstated French civil law.
Extended the boundaries of Quebec beyond the "proclamation line", to claim for the colony the fur trade territories central to its economy (without consultation of the First Nations peoples, despite their agreement in the Royal Proclamation. Focus Questions How did competition between Britain and France to control North America shape Canada?
What challenges of coexistence among British, Canadien, and First Nations peoples did it lead to?
How did people meet those challenges? VOCABULARY colonization: the process of one country establishing domination over a territory in another country or region digue: a barrier usually made of earth, that separates land from water deport: to send out of a country strategic position: a place whose physical location makes it important or valuable, often for military reasons prejudice: a negative generalization about a group of people based on uninformed judgements Maritimes: the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island officially bilingual: having rights in law that establish equality between two languages genocide: a policy to eliminate people of a particular cultural identity whiskey traders: people who traded alcohol with First Nations, which disrupted First Nations societies retaliate: to get revenge assimilate: to become part of a different cultural group bicultural: giving official recognition to two cultures elected assembly: representatives elected by voters tithe: a payment to support a church The Constitutional Act Britain's response to the Loyalists concerns ... Divided Quebec into Upper Canada (British civil and criminal law) and Lower Canada (reaffirmed the arrangements under the Quebec Act).
Set aside lands for Protestant churches and guaranteed the Canadiens rights to the Catholic Church
Established officials and a legislative council appointed by Britain in each colony, and an assembly elected by the colonists meaning they had a "representative government." The Push for Democracy The Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 The Act of Union What challenges of coexistence did the Great Migration create?
Why did peoples in British North America want a more democratic government?
To what extent did demands for more democratic government reflect challenges of coexistence in British North America?
How did the response to demands for more democratic government shape Canada? Focus Questions LaFontaine-Baldwin Alliance Caused by ... People left Britain for economic reasons which was caused by the Industrial Revolution, machines replacing peoples jobs, or people losing their farms to large landowners. The Napoleonic Wars caused even more unemployment and an Irish famine forced many people to leave.
Britain's colonies provided a place for people to move and start over. Britain encouraged emigration as a way to relieve its economic troubles and to reinforce loyalty to Britain in its colonies. Challenges created ... A new wave of colonists/settlers greatly increased the population of Upper and Lower Canada. They began to clear the land for farms. They brought diseases with them, which caused a quarantine to be set up in hopes of preventing the spread of the disease. A reformer is someone who seeks to change established rules in a society. The reformers wanted to change from the current colonial government to a more democratic government because they wanted the authority to make decisions that affected their own lives. The reformers were Louis-Joseph Papineau, William Lyon Mackenzie and Joseph Howe. Caused by ... The Situation in Lower Canada Struggle between a Council of English merchants and Assembly of Canadiens
Fighting would sometimes break out when voting for members of the assembly
Cholera epidemic, brought by British and Irish immigrants, kills many Canadiens
Crop failures brought hardship and starvation The Situation in Upper Canada Struggle between a Council of wealthy English families and "potential" Assembly of reformers
Governor ensured his party, not the reform party, won the majority of the seats
Widespread crop failures brought hardship and starvation What occurred ... Britain's Response to the Rebellions Solution that was proposed to Britain... In 1838, Britain set up an official investigation to find out what had caused the rebellions. After 5 months Lord Durham, the leader, made the following recommendations. Union of Lower and Upper Canada where this one united government of an English majority
Provide a more democratic government where Britain takes a step back and allows the colonists to govern themselves
Force the Canadiens to assimilate Solution that Britain tried to enact... In 1841, Britain passed the Act of Union, based on the recommendations of the Durham report to pressure the Canadiens to assimilate. Combined Upper and Lower Canada into a single province: the Province of Canada
Created a legislative council that the governor appointed
Created an assembly with an equal number of elected representatives from Canada West and Canada East
Made English the official language of government in the new Province of Canada Two politicians, LaFontaine (Canada East) and Baldwin (Canada West), who wanted more democratic government joined their political parties in a coalition, which simply means they worked together. Together they successfully pressured Britain into recognizing French as an official language in the assembly. It was because of them that Canada was finally granted self-government. LaFontaine asked for compensation - money - for the people who suffered property damage during the rebellions. People in Upper Canada had already received compensation and LaFontaine wanted to ensure their was equal treatment. Both conservative members and the governor, Lord Elgrin, disagreed with the bill. Lord Elgrin did however respect the decision of the assembly. This showed that the voters finally had control over those that governed them and they had the authority to make decisions independent of Britain. coalition: an alliance among different groups working together outspoken: expressing an opinion clearly and directly self-government: government that does not answer to an imperial power reformer: someone who seeks to change established rules and arrangements in society Anglophone: a person whose first language is English immigration: the process of people establishing homes and citizenship in a country that is not their native country rebellion: a challenge to the authority of a recognized government colonial government: a government established in a colony and controlled by an imperial power such as Britain emigration: leaving one's country to establish a home and citizenship in another country famine: a shortage of food leading to starvation for many people - Create a nation that stretches from "sea to sea" and that would maintain ties with Britain
- Grant provinces powers that gave them some control over their own affairs John A. Macdonald George-Etienne Cartier - Supported political change, but did not want a republic like the United States
- He advocated for the continuation of Canadien rights (French language and Catholic religion George Brown - Thought the Province of Canada needed representation by population not Confederation
- Wanted Britain's colonies to unite for better chances in controlling Rupert's Land Etienne-Paschal Tache - Helped forge, and then led, the alliance with Macdonald
- The "Great Coalition" - that became central to the success of Confederation Key Confederation Issues The Act of Union encouraged the development of political deadlocks because Canada East and Canada West had an equal number of seats in the Province's assembly. The Problem with Political Deadlock Canadiens had protected their language and religion despite the aim of the Act of Union to assimilate them. Some thought Confederation would secure their rights and others not. The Question of Rights for Canadiens Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, PEI and Newfoundland worried they would lose their independence by joining Canada East and Canada West. It was also expensive. The Question of Independence for Regions British North America worried about being taken over by the United States. The Risk of American Annexation Canada West had developed nearly all the good farm land and considered expanding west into Rupert's Land. Western Expansion Britain took steps to end mercantilism. With the end of the treaty between British North America and the United States meant that the United States added a tariff to goods from British North America. Trade Challenges Railways At this time, in British North America, Canada East and West had the most railway connections and the Maritime colonies had the least.
The railways served as connections between the provinces and the United States for trade/transportation of goods. Key Points of the BNA Act - Federal government had the power to make laws for the "peace, order and good government" of Canada
- Division of powers between the federal and provincial governments
- Guaranteed public schools for the Protestant minority (spoke English) in Quebec and for the Catholic minorities (spoke French) in the rest of Canada
- The federal government had the power to protect the rights of Catholic or Protestant minorities
- Established representation by population for Canada's House of Commons
- Guaranteed that the new government of Canada would pay for a railway to connect the provinces First Nations and Confederation During the Confederation negotiations, the colonies of British North America did not consult any First Nations for their views. It was decided during the negotiations that the First Nations peoples must give up their ways of life before they can vote and they were the responsibility of Canada's federal government. Elijah Harper took a stand to have First Nations peoples rights recognized. Confederation Timeline In 1867, the original Confederation agreement was negotiated between the following four provinces: Ontario (Canada West), Quebec (Canada East), New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Together these provinces formed the country of Canada. Manitoba refused to be transferred to Canada as a territory but demanded to join as a province. Colonies had well established British settlements and had governments advised or elected by the colonists. Colonies joined through agreements among the colonists, Britain and Canada. They joined as provinces, with elected provincial governments and the power to make many of their own decisions. The territories had very few British settlers and were governed by appointed British officials. The territories were simply transferred to Canada through an agreement between Britain and Canada. What is the difference between joining Confederation as a province or territory? British Columbia joins as a province. At this time their is a large geographic divide between BC and the provinces of Canada in the East. In joining, BC was given money to pay for the the colonies loans and a railways linking BC to the remaining provinces of Canada in the East. Prince Edward Island joins as a province. In joining, PEI was provided money to buy the island's farmland, money to pay off their debt as a result of building a railway and a year-round ferry service. Alberta and Saskatchewan were created from a territory transferred to Canada. Newfoundland joins as a province. For almost 60 years Newfoundland rejected Confederation because they had an elected government and a successful economy as a colony of Britain. During the Great Depression Britain stepped in and took control of Newfoundland's affairs until after World War II. After the war, Britain was hurting financially and said it could no longer assist Newfoundland so their future was put to a vote.
In joining, Newfoundland was given money to pay for most of their debt, money to develop their economy and year-round ferry service. Focus Questions What issues shaped Confederation?
What ideas of citizenship shaped Confederation?
What factors led to other provinces joining Confederation?