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YG - Marlborough College Jan 2014
Transcript of YG - Marlborough College Jan 2014
Democracies have better chance to emerge if social forces within the country are highly committed to the democratic ideal
Beware of fake democracies: elections don't guarantee democracy. Democracy has to live in daily social interactions
Democracy comes from a combination of political struggle between various sections of the society and structural economic change introduced by capitalism. Two structural changes caused by capitalism:
Strengthening of the working class
Weakening of the landowners
Unintended social consequences:
Pro-democratic collective action becomes easier
Class alliances might be needed to achieve change (petty bourgeoisie, middle class)
"Economic development is conducive to democracy to the extent that it, first, creates a large, educated, and articulate middle class of people who are accustomed to thinking for themselves and, second, transforms people's values and motivations" (Inglehart and Welzel 2009, p. 8)
Why are some countries democratic and others not?
- What are democracies made of?
- Which forms of political systems have prevailed in history?
- What do we know about democratic 'transitions'?
What are democracies made of?
- Key principle: Rule by the people
- Elected representatives
- Free and fair elections
- Universal suffrage
- Individual freedom
- Freedom of press
- Right to form associations
- 'Quality of Governance': impartiality
1) Pure democracy is a norm, an ideal. Real-life political systems might only approach that norm
2) Democracy is a set institutions,
a social construction
--> It takes time and complex social dynamics to achieve democracy
3) Historically, democracy is not the dominant political system
1) We need to remove un-democratic regimes
2) We need to build the right set of democratic institutions
Key thing to remember
Moving away from dictatorship doesn't mean getting closer to democracy --> it's just the beginning of new dynamics whose outcome is highly contingent
(Carothers 2002 -http://is.gd/Eh2NpB)
What do we need to achieve democracy?
Factors facilitating the advent of democracy
Take away messages
Testing your familiarity with the academic way of thinking
Do you seriously believe I can provide a definitive answer to the question in 40 min?
Three Important Remarks
Yellow: Partly free
Purple: Not free
Expect fierce resistance!
Expect a long struggle!
Democratisation in a global context
- Top-down imposition of democracy
- Is it sustainable?