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Behavioral Learning Theory

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on 6 September 2013

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Transcript of Behavioral Learning Theory

Behavioral Learning Theory
Major Scholars
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
John Watson (1878-1958)
Watson & Rayner (1920 experiment)
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)

Nature of Knowing, Knowledge, Learning & Teaching
This theory is based on the thought that people learn based on external stimuli. If you do something and receive a positive response, you are more likely to do it again. If you do something and receive a negative response, you are less likely to do it again.

Four main ideas to this theory.
Examples & Technologies
Behavioral Learning Theory uses repetitive activities that reinforce skills already learned
Drills
Games
Simulators

Framework for Educational Technology
Behavioral Learning Theory serves as the best framework for Educational Technology because it
Breaks instruction into small manageable steps that require active responses that provides immediate feedback (Reiser, 2012)
Immediate feedback ensure the student masters the skill before moving on to the next skill
Sets the framework for utilizing some of the most widely used methods of instruction; drills, simulators, and games.
Foundation for formative evaluation
John Watson

Wrote The Ways of Behaviorism
Study of what people do
Behavior can be reduced to relationships between stimuli and responses

"Life's most complicated acts are but combinations of these simple stimulus- response patterns of behavior."
~ John Watson
Watson & Rayner
In 1920 Watson & Rayner conducted the Little Albert Experiment

Studied the laws on the formation of conditioned reflexes

Pavlov's Dogs
Conditioned dogs to respond to stimulus

Conclusion: Animals can be trained to respond in a certain way to stimulus


Ivan Pavlov
B.F. Skinner
Wrote the Behavior of Organisms that introduced the concepts of operant condition and shaping.

Skinners Main Ideas:
Operant Conditioning - idea that human behavior is shaped by consequences
Reinforcement
Punishment
Shaping
Stimulus Control



Check Work Regularly and Provide Feedback
The teacher teaches a lesson and then immediately determines what students have learned. If they have mastered the concept, the teacher moves on. If not, the teacher must realize what did not work and try something new. The focus is on in the moment evaluation and reassessment of goals and plans. This is the foundation for formative evaluation.


Teach out of Context
Focus on the content and not the context. By focusing on the content students are able to apply the skills in more than one context.

Example: Teaching addition without the use of money so students could later add the number of people attending a party or add money.
Break Skills into Small Steps
Skills are broken down into simple steps to ensure success.

Learners master the first step before moving on the proceeding steps

Teachers play a critical role in this theory.

Instruction is teacher centered. Students are dependent on the teacher to teach and demonstrate the skills or behaviors.

Teacher Center Learning
Impact on Practice
Resources
Behavioral Learning Theory is the basis for our current education system. The teacher is responsible for giving students knowledge. Then testing the student usually through unit tests.
The use of technology in education still includes small chunks of learning with positive reward. All video games require the player to perform a task or complete a mission to move on. This is behavioral learning at its best.



Games for K-12
Principle 4: Application
Principle 4 is Application. The Behavioral Learning Theory gives students the opportunity to practice their newly acquired skills through drills, games, and simulators. Learning is promoted when students apply what they have learned through practice and feedback.
Principle 3: Demonstration
"Learning is promoted when the instruction demonstrates what is to be learned rather than merely telling information." (Merrill 2002)

Behavioral Learning Theory is instructor led. The student depends on the teacher to show and demonstrate the skills learned in order to learn.


Two principles that are relevant to Behavioral Learning Theory are
Principle 3: Demonstration
Principle 4: Application


First Principles as it relates to Behavioral Learning Theory
1.Android Guys. n.d [photograph of Words with Friends] Retrieved from http://www.androidguys.com/2011/02/03/zyngas-words-friends-coming-android-month/
2.Beautiful Elsewhere. n.d. [photograph of football play] Retrieved from http://justinkirbywriter.wordpress.com/2012/02/13/kreativ-blogger-award/
3.Born Rich: Home of Luxury. n.d. [photograph of flight simulator] Retrieved from http://www.bornrich.com/sx02-flight-simulator-with-surround-screen.html
4.Get in the Game. n.d. [photograph of teacher] Retrieved from http://sportsbooksforkidsandteens.blogspot.com/2012/03/upload-video-to-thank-teacher-who.html
5.Instructional Design Central. n.d. [photograph of Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction]. Retrieved from http://www.instructionaldesigncentral.com/htm/IDC_instructionaldesignmodels.htm
6.Johncheezy (2010, June1 ) The Little Albert Experiment [Video File] Retrieved from
7.Math Aids.com: Dynamically Crated Math Worksheets. n.d. [photograph of flash cards] Retrieved from http://www.math-aids.com/Flash_Cards/
8.Merrill, M David (2002) Educational Technology, Research and Development. ProQuest Research Library.
9.Muskingum College, Department of Psychology, John B Watson retrieved from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/watson.htm
10.Noble Prize. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov retrieved from http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/pavlov/readmore.html
11. PSP n.d. [photograph of psp] Retrieved from http://us.playstation.com/psp/systems/3000cp.html
12.Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (2012). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. Boston: Pearson.
13.Reuters. Hilton Garden Inn Officially Launches Innovative Training Using PSP retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/01/14/idUS125525+14-Jan-2009+BW20090114
14. Ties.com. n.d. [Image of tying a tie]. Retrieved from http://www.ties.com/how-to-tie-a-tie/simple
15 .University of Houston. Behavioral Theories retrieved from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm
Conclusion: Just as Pavlov's dogs showed the conditioning of dogs to stimulus, the Little Albert Experiment showed that humans can also be conditioned to respond based on stimulus.

For teachers/professors/consultants with interactive whiteboards, between portions of the lesson, students can use wireless devices to anonymously answer "on-the-spot" quiz questions; the teacher can immediately provide feedback (the right answer) and the class can see how many understood. This could redirect the lesson for the day. If a majority didn't understand the concept at hand, the teacher could continue on with that concept instead of moving on. This could also apply to adult learners interacting with the same kind of device.



In the arcade game program called FastMath, students are on a racetrack and are assigned a visually appealing race car. Students have to quickly answer questions about math facts. If the answer is correct, they propel forward; if the answer is wrong, they are "stuck" until the answer is typed correctly, then they can move forward.


Games for Adult Learners
Hilton Garden Inn uses PlayStationPortable (PSP) to train employees on guest satisfaction. Each hotel received one PSP with Ultimate Team Play Game. Ultimate Team Play placed each player in a 3D Hilton Garden hotel. Players choose how to respond to various guest-related scenarios. How fast and the appropriateness of the response directly affected the guest's satisfaction.
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