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FLVS World History 3.02H Big picture Africa
Transcript of FLVS World History 3.02H Big picture Africa
A FLVS World History 3.02H Assignment
The Kingdom of Zimbabwe is a unique area filled with a fascinating culture. Zimbabwe first began when the Proto-Shona societies settled in the area. Many different cities grew and overpowered each other through several centuries. Then, the UK sent colonists supported by the British’s South Africa Company (BSAC) to explore the land and its natural resources. This resulted in many battles between the natives and the Europeans. Later in 1980, Zimbabwe was recognized as independent from the UK.
Though foreigners did influence this country, it retained much of its exotic culture. Many of the people hand make pottery, baskets, jewelery, and textiles which are known for their intricate symmetrical patterns. Many of these items along with gold, agriculture, and minerals, are Zymbabwes main exports.
Zimbabwe is home to approximately thirteen million people, one and a half million of which live in the capital, Harare. President Mugabe is the country’s current leader and resides in the capital as well. Zimbabwe has Africa’s highest adult literacy rate, 90.70%, and is continuing to improve its humanitarian situation. The main religion is Christianity, though some people do still practice ancestral worship.
The geography of this area ranges from tropical forests to beautiful savannahs; however, one of the most mesmerizing places in Zimbabwean is:
Great Zimbabwe is an ancient city’s fascinating ruins. The Gokomere people built it around the eleventh century . They made stone bricks and worked for many years to construct the ancient city of gigantic pillars, high walls, and lovely homes. It is believed that two towering Zimbabwe birds guarded the city’s entrance, and soapstone figures in the form of the Zimbabwe bird were found in the city. Zimbabwe birds are still honoured today and fly on the country’s flag and coat of arms. The interesting thing about this almost 1800 acre city of stone, is the fact that no mortar was involved in the construction, making the Gokomore people far ahead of their time in architect. These industrious people created beautiful carvings and pottery, as well. Many foreigners came from different continents, even as far as the Orient, to trade with them and their multitude of gold. The city was later deserted around the 14th century due to climate changes reducing the water supply and outside invaders .
The ruins of Great Zimbabwe and the soapstone Zimbabwe bird.
The Republic of Kenya is one of the most beautiful countries in Africa, mainly due to the purposeful preservation of its diverse, animal-rich vegetation and the advancement of its society. Kenya was first inhabited by the Arabian people because of the close proximity to the Arabian Peninsula. They became farmers, hunters, fishers, iron workers, and traders. Later, Europeans became interested in the Kenya and began colonizing it. They made many advancements in that society, including building a railroad; understandably, however, many Kenyan tribes didn’t like the foreigners and rebellions were enacted. On December 12, 1963, the Kenyans elected their first president, Jomo Kenyatta. The current president is Uhuru Kenyatta, the leader of the presidential representative democratic republic country.
With the largest GDP in Central and Eastern Africa, Kenya is a bustling country of approximately 44 million people. It exports large amounts of tea, coffee, and fresh flowers (especially to Europe) while one of its largest economy boosters is agriculture. The literacy rate in Kenya is 85%. These industrious people are continually trying to diminish the poverty level, while improving the overall health level of the nation. Besides being an economic leader in Africa, Kenya has a multitude of Olympic medals for long distance running. It’s main religion is Christianity and surprisingly this country has the largest amount of Quakers in the world. The preservation of land is very important to the Kenyan government and people, thus much land is devoted to the spectacular wildlife and plants that inhabit the area; however, it also has the exact opposite of peaceful nature- Mombasa.
Mombasa, which houses over a one million people, is the second largest city in Kenya. It is the main economic and trade center of Kenya because it contains the only large seaport in the country, the Kilindini Harbour. Not only is this city known for trade, but it’s also known t for tourism. The city is a-buzz with entertainment any time of day for any individual of the family that enjoys activities like waterparks, movie theatres, countless diverse restaurants, water sports, mountain biking, exploring the sand and surf, and many more activities. It’s the perfect place to experience the native culture through music, dancing, and food.
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is a landlocked country on the Horn of Africa; however, the countries makes up for the lack of sea creatures with the multitude of globally recognized various birds that inhabit the area. A multitude of humans, approximately 91 million, also live in Ethiopia. Actually, the place that showed the earliest indications of human life is in Ethiopia. The history of this country is extensive, with many different rulers and eras involved; however there are several main points that show themselves different from the rest. In the third century, one of the most important world powers was the Kingdom of Aksum, who in the 4th century was the first major empire to officially recognize Christianity as the kingdom’s main religion. Fifteen centuries later, in the 19th century, the only African nation not defeated by European invaders trying to settle in the land was Ethiopia, who at that time saved and retained its independence from Europe. After many different eras and rulers came and went, Ethiopia chose its current leader, the Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn.
Since Ethiopia has such a large population, it also has a very diverse culture. Ninety-nine languages are spoken throughout the country and there are eighty ethnic groups, each having a distinctive style of music. The main religion is Christianity; however Islam and African traditional religions are not uncommon throughout the country.
Ethiopia is the top producer of coffee in the world. All that extra energy might explain how it has the fastest growing economy in the world. Its other exports include khat (a relatively harmless drug-like plant), gold, leather, and oilseed. It’s also in a prime position to become the greatest flower and vegetation exporter in the world.
Though the literacy rate is not at the top of the leader board compared to other African countries, Ethiopia does have the highest school enrolment than many other African countries and is increasing in its literacy rate. Also, city health conditions have improved greatly and now much less sickness and poverty influence the area.
There are several great sights to visit in Ethiopia, but a truly magnificent one would be ancient city of Askum.
In Askum, one site that will attract a lot of attention is the centuries old stelae. These are, according to the dictionary definition, upright stone slabs or pillars bearing an inscription or design and serving as a monument, marker, or the like. These mysterious obelisks are extremely tall, and have been partly reconstructed due to different wars. Another fantastic site would be the Cathedrals of St Mary of Zion. According to legend, the original cathedral housed the Ark of the Covenant; however, the building was repeatedly destroyed and reconstructed until the newest cathedral was built next to the remains of the older one. In between the two catherdrals is the Chapel of the Covenant, where the Ark of the Covenant is believed to be kept. This beautiful site is extremely important to many Ethiopians and others.
The obelisks of Askum and the Chapel of the Ark.
Home to some of the most amazing places in nature, like Mt. Kilimanjaro and the Serengeti Plain, and a diverse climate and rich culture, the United Republic of Tanzania is a truly wonderful place. Tanzania began from the indigenous Hadza and Sanawe people, who were hunters and gatherers. Later, the Haya people, in order to forge carbon steel, made a blast furnace with degrees of more than 3,310 degrees Fahrenheit, making these people years ahead of their time. Many tribes and rulers rose and fell until the British invaded and conquered the land. A man named Julius Nyerere wanted his land to be free and created TANU (Tanganyika African National Union). Relatively peacefully (without bloody wars and rebellions which the neighboring countries used), TANU made progress with the British government and Tanzania became independent in 1961. Nyerere became Prime Minister of the region. Later, after a bad turn with Socialism, the country implemented reforms which helped the country’s GDP growth and lowered the poverty level.
Around 45 million people have made Tanzania their home, with their leader being President Jakaya Mrisho Kilwete, who lives in the capital, Dodoma. There are 120 unique ethnic groups in the country, and the main religions are Christianity, Islam, and Animism (the belief that things in nature, e.g. trees, mountains, and the sky, have souls or consciousness.) The literacy rate is 73%, which may be because of the vastly improved drinking water available in the area. Water also accounts for agricultural being the most important thing concerning growth for the GDP and economy in general. Tanzania also exports gold, diamonds, iron, natural gas, and many more important minerals.
One of the most interesting things about Tanzania is the art the native people make. There are two types, the Tingatinga and the Makonde. The Tingatinga art are bright enamel paintings on canvas depicting animals and flowers in a repetitive design, while the Makonde art is usually an ebony sculpture of the Tree of Life, though some natives also carve people and other objects.
For a city rich with Tanzanian history, Kilwa Kisiwani, would be one of the best places to visit.
When visiting the island of Kiwa Kisani, you’re sure to feel like royalty in the midst of the ruins of the Mkutini Palace. The island itself used to be the headquarters for a medieval world power, the Kilwa Sultanate. At the empire’s height, the land included the entire length of the Swahili coast. A trip to the island should include a tour of the ruins of this time period, as well as the memorable ruins of the Great Mosque. Also visiting the Selous Game Reserve, where animals run freely and endangered species are protected, will prove to be a lovely experience.
The Mkutini Palace
The Great Mosque