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Macromolecules

Bio. 1 project by: Angel & Mariel
by

Angel Cox

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of Macromolecules

What Are They?? Macromolecules Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They consist of one or more polymers, also known as polypeptides. Those are made by the linking of 20 amino acids together w/ "peptide linkages." Peptide bonds are formed through condensation reactions. All proteins are made from 20 amino acids; their primary structure determines their secondary... structure. Proteins that are or have been subjected to extreme conditions ( such as large changes in PH, high temp., ect.) often denature. When identifying proteins look for "N"s. Proteins Carbohydrates This macromolecule contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphate (P). Especially look for (P) when identifying nucleic acids.
They are the basic building blocks of organisms, and are made up of nucleotides that consist of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
There are 2 types of nucleic acids:
DNA & RNA. Nucleic Acid Lipids are fatty acids that act as a great source of stored energy. They also act as insulators for the body, and cushion as well as protect the internal organs. Lipids produce hormones (steroids), and waterproof surfaces of animals, plants, and fruits. Pay attention to lots of "H"s and 2-3 "O"s when identifying a lipid. Lipids A macromolecule is a large complex molecule. They provide structural support, are a source of stored fuel, have the ability to retrieve, and store genetic info, as well as the ability to speed biochemical reactions.
The 4 major types are proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids. All macromolecules except lipids are considered polymers; which are chains of monomers or similar subunits that are linked by covalent bonds. Other names for macromolecules are biomolecules, organic, and carbon compounds.
There are also tests for these biomolecules to be detected by other chemical compounds; these are called indicators. Monomers, Examples, & Functions Carbs. Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acid IF YOU WERE FALLING ASLEEP, OR TALKING WAKEUP, SHUT UP AND PAY ATTENTION (no offense) Macromolecule Feud Class, split up into 2 groups. Each team choose your 4 best representatives. Each question is worth 10 points. At the end of the game or in case of a tie there will be one last question that's worth 30 points, in which anyone from the team can answer and has 15 seconds to do so. The team w/ the most points wins. Mariel & I will ask each teams' first representative a question; whoever buzzes in first w/ the correct answer will go first. Each representative will
have the opportunity to
consult w/ their teammates.
He/ she must give one of us
an answer within 10 seconds
after the full question has been
read. We will go down the line,
asking each rep. a question
based on what we've taught. If a rep. fails to answer the question correctly, or within the 10 sec. time frame, Mariel or I will move onto the next rep . If both teams answer incorrectly, the question will be thrown out. Each team will have 3 trys, if they strike out the other team has a chance to steal for 15 points. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon and hydrogen. They are a main source of energy for living things. When identifying carbohydrates, look for hexagon shapes with 12 "H"s and 6"O"s. Carbs. make up the cell wall in plants called cellulose, which allows them to grow taller. M- Monnosacharides
Ex.- Sugars(sweets), and starches(potatoes, & bread)
F- Main source of energy M- 20 amino acids
Ex.- Structure, immunity enzymes
F- Enzymes and hormones M- Nucleotides
Ex.- DNA
F- Storing genetic information M- Fatty acids
Ex.- Fats (animals) or oil (plants)
F- Protection, & back-up energy Indicator Macromolecule (-) test (+) test Benedict's IKI (Iodine Potassium Iodine) Biuret protein blue violet, black Sudan IV simple carb. (such as glucose) complex carb. (such as starch) lipid turns blue orange, green, red,yellow dark red black dark red reddish-orange brown paper bag lipid normal clear/red By: Angel, and Mariel (7th pd.)
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