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Transcript of Perceptual errors
The term perception is "the process of recognizing, selecting, organizing and interpreting stimuli in order to make sense of the world around us”. (Harrell (1986), cited by Foxall, & Goldsmith, (1998: p.52)) Perception Definition Source: Video By focusing on one aspect we often miss the the bigger picture. Perceptual Video By focusing on one aspect we often miss the the bigger picture. Perceptual Video Attribution is the process by which people interpret the perceived causes of behaviour as:
External Attribution Theory
Distinctiveness - the extent to which an individual performs different behaviours with different objects.
Consensus - the degree to which other one performs the same behaviour with the same object.
Consistency - the extent to which someone performs that same behaviour toward an object on different occasions. - Consistently getting high grades in exams Attribution Theory Cont. Source: www.psychologytoday.com - Using Self-Fulfilling Prophecies to Your Advantage Self-Fulfilling prophecy is "the tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which you expected to find in the first place" (French, 2011, p.90). Pygmalion Effect (Self-fulfilling prophecies) The Pygmalion effect involves a "broad range of organizational behavior variables, including interpersonal expectancy, communication, leadership, self-expectancy, motivation, and performance." (Eden, D. 1984, pp. 64-73). Pygmalion Effect (Self-fulfilling prophecies) Source:http://uk.photos.com/royalty-free-images/teacher-telling-a-student-off/97739969 •Research "clearly establishes that teacher expectations do play a significant role in determining how well and how much students learn". (Bamburg, 1994, p.2) Examples of self fulfilling prophecies in education "If staff believe a rumour (prophecy) that there will be no promotions or bonuses for the foreseeable future, they are likely to behave in such a way that their performance would not justify promotion or bonuses (even if the rumour were not true)". (Mullins, 2010, p.241). Examples of self fulfilling prophecies in the workplace Source:
"5 ways to reward your employees" •Encourage employees to set innovative goals
•Take pride in your employees achievements
•Publicly recognize innovative work
•Reward creativity properly
(Tierney, & Farmer, 2004, pp.413-432.) How managers can overcome this Source: www.glamour.com - Weight Stereotyping "Beliefs about the characteristics,
attributes, and behaviors of members of certain groups" (Hilton, & Von Hippel, 1996, p.240). Stereotyping Trade union members are anti-management
All Arabs support Muslim fundamentalism
All Asians are good at Mathematics
All Accountants are boring
Women are more nurturing than men Examples of stereotyping Get to know employees rather than automatically categorizing Vukotich, G. (2011)
Justifying their decision
Effective training London, M. (2008) How managers can overcome this Contrast Effect (French, 2011, pp.83). For Example:
What is your attention drawn to in this picture? Contrast Effect •Example- Employees of an organization are asked to work in a group on a project,
•How does this link to contrast?
- One individuals bad performance can have a wider effect.
- 'Tainted with the same brush'
•How managers overcome this problem?
- Awareness Contrast Effect- management example 1
People generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual.
(French, R. (2011)) Halo and Horn Effect For example
•Positive Halo effect
–Smiling person is honest.
•Negative Halo effect – ‘Horn Effect’
–Frowning person is dishonest. Halo and Horn Cont.
A Leniency error is where a manager or supervisor rates an employee’s performance higher than their actual performance.
Leniency Error Definition, 2013 What is a Leniency error?
A sports assistant at a Sports Centre is being accessed as a yearly review. Example • The member of staffs performance may stay the same.
•May cause other staffs performances to drop.
•Staff morale can change. Key Issues
Double reviews by more than one person. How to overcome the error It can be argued from an ethical point of view "that a manager does not have the moral right to direct, manage or 'boss' any individual in their area of responsibility". (Watson, 2006, p.3). This is why its very difficult to manage people in general. "It is important to recognise the importance of cultural difference and the use of language". (Mullins, 2010, p.244) Overall for a manager to be successful they must understand that everyone is different in the way they perceive the external world. How to manage perceptions as a whole "We don't see things as they are, we see things as we are"Anaïs Nin The end - Any Questions? Ahlawat, S. (2011). Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences. TAKING STOCK OF THE PCAOB AND INVESTOR CONFIDENCE, vol 23, pp22-32. DOI:10.1007/s10551-009-0158-1
Bamburg, J.D. (1994). Raising Expectations for students. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED378290)
Eden, D. (1984). The Academy of Management Review. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy as a Management Tool: Harnessing Pygmalion, 9(1), 64-73. DOI: 10.2307/258233
Griffin, R W., Moorhead, G. (2008). Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations (Tenth Edition) Mason: S4Carlisle Publishing Services.
Hilton, J. L., & Von Hippel, W. (1996). Annual review of psychology, Stereotypes, 47(1), 237-271. DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.47.1.237
Foxall, G. R., & Goldsmith, R. E. (1998). Consumer psychology for marketing. London: International Thomson Business Press.
French, R. (2011). Organizational behaviour. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Harrell, G. D. (1986). Consumer behaviour. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
London, M. (2008). Job Feedback: Giving, Seeking, and Using Feedback for Performance Improvement. New Jersy: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Leniency Error Definition. (2013, 01 31). Retrieved from
Martin, J.,& Fellenz, M. R. (2010). Organizational behaviour and management. Andover: Cengage Learning.
Mullins, L. J. (2010). Management and organisational behaviour. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2004). Journal of Management,The Pygmalion process and employee creativity, 30(3), 413-432. DOI: 10.1016/j.jm.2002.12.001
Vukotich, G. (2011). 10 Steps to successful Change Management. USA. ASTD Press
Watson, T. J (2006). Organising and managing work: Organisational, managerial and strategic behaviour in theory and practice. Harlow: Pearson Longman. Bibliography: