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Transcript of Ancient Greece
-Geography and Culture
The other civilizations we've learned about were based around what geographic feature?
Greece is a little different
First, mainland Greece is very mountainous
Second, there are nearly 2,000 Greek islands in the Aegean Sea
Typically, mountains isolate people and cultures because it's difficult to get around/over them.
Greeks farmed on small, yet fertile valleys.
Problem is, only 1/4 of Greece has this fertile farmland scattered across the mainland.
As a result, people lived in small communities around these valleys and on the coast.
These small, isolated communities eventually combined with neighboring communities, forming larger towns (like a city) with their own political systems (like a state).
City-State = Polis
Polis = Civilization in Ancient Greece
A lot like NC
Warm summers, mild winters
Most events took place outdoors
Minoans and Mycenaeans
Minoans = Crete (island)
Mycenae = Mainland
c. 1500 BC - 1100 BC
Trade, Trade, Trade
Minoans and Mycenaeans
Traded with many other cultures.
Cultural diffusion - a new idea or product spreads from one culture to another.
Colonies vs. Conquest
Greece vs Troy
War between Greeks and the city of Troy in modern-day Turkey
Homer's Iliad and Odyssey
Achilles and Hector
Greek Gods and Goddesses
Mythology and Religion
Greeks believed in several gods and goddesses, making them a polytheistic culture.
Some of the important ones:
Zeus - King of the Olympians, Hera = wife
Poseidon - God of the sea
Hades - God of the underworld
Athena - Goddess of wisdom and skill in warfare (guess which Greek city is named after her)
Ares - God of war
City-States Rise to Power -
Political Units of Ancient Greece
Fewer than 10,000 Residents
Had many different governments
Legacy in modern-day law, government, architecture, and more.
(Remember, -archy or -cracy means a type of government)
Mon = one
archy = rule or government
Monarchy = Rule by one person
Ex - King or Queen
Oligo = few, little
Oligarchy = Rule by a few
Ex - Sparta, Egypt today
Aristo = best, noble
Aristocracy = Rule by the nobility/wealthy
Ex - Athens before 600 BC
Democracy - Rule by the people
Ex - United States
Athens and Sparta
Two of the most important city-states in Ancient Greece
Each leaves a distinct legacy on the world
In your groups, use the handout to compare and contrast Ancient Athens and Sparta. You can also use it to fill out your organizer.
Then decide which city-state you would rather live in and why.
Come up with some examples and be ready to discuss.
Athens = Thinkers
Sparta = Warriors
Persian Wars 490 - 479 BC
Persia gets greedy, starts taking over parts of Greece
Fight battles on the Greek peninsula
Ancient Greece -
What makes people remember Ancient Greece?
Why are we learning about it now?
Artistic and Literary Legacies of Ancient Greece:
SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS
Pericles 461-429 BC
Athenian statesman and general
He had 3 goals:
(1) Empower Athenian democracy
(2) Hold and strengthen Athens
(3) Beautify the city
> 600 BC
Draco, Solon, Reform
Cleisthenes, Democracy, Education
Strengthened army, discouraged expression
Golden Age of Pericles
Pressed for war with Athens
Wins Peloponnesian War
Marathon- 490 BC
Thermopylae- 480 BC
Salamis- 480 BC
-Draco, Solon, Cleisthenes
-Citizens to pass laws
-How is Greek law different from Hammurabi's Code?
-Harmony, order, and balance
-Several new styles of government
-Basis for American Democracy
-What were the styles of government in Ancient Greece?
-Thinkers, Philosophers, foundation of education.
-Why did the Greeks value education?
Sophocles, Aeschylus, Euripides
-Parthenon, Colossus at Rhodes, Temples to gods
-Many are still standing today.
Anybody know what building this is?
So what happened?
Rivalry between Athens and Sparta =
What did Athenians value? What about Spartans?
Who do you think will win?
-Rituals and festivals to honor the gods
Ex. Drama performances, Olympic Games
Alexander the Great
After Athens and Sparta battle it out, the two city-states are weakened and never regain their past glory
Golden Age = OVER
One person who takes advantage of the weakened city-states is
PHILIP II of MACEDONIA, father of Alexander.
Philip II comes to power in 359 BC (about 40 years after Peloponnesian War ends).
Builds a professional army and uses a 16x16 phalanx formation to crush resistance in northern Greece.
By the time Athens and Thebes (another city-state) stand up to Philip
in 338 BC, the Macedonians conquer Greece
in the battle of Chaeronea.
2 years later, Philip is stabbed by a former guardsman and
Alexander becomes king of Macedonia in 336 BC.
In 13 years, he will
spread Greek culture across the world's largest empire.
This Age of Alexander is known as the
Hellenistic Age, a fusion of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian cultures.
Alexander had several goals, but his main goal was to complete his father's goal of conquering Persia and beyond.
Not only did he conquer Persia, he made it to the Indus Valley in 326 BC before his war-weary soldiers turned back for home.
Engineering an Empire
Video with questions
Info on Alexander and his conquests and a look into the Hellenistic Age
Make sure you pay attention because you may see these questions again