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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece to Alexander
by

Cason Justice

on 7 February 2012

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Transcript of Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece
-Geography and Culture
Geography
The other civilizations we've learned about were based around what geographic feature?
Greece is a little different
First, mainland Greece is very mountainous
Second, there are nearly 2,000 Greek islands in the Aegean Sea
Geography
Typically, mountains isolate people and cultures because it's difficult to get around/over them.
Greeks farmed on small, yet fertile valleys.
Problem is, only 1/4 of Greece has this fertile farmland scattered across the mainland.
As a result, people lived in small communities around these valleys and on the coast.
Geography
These small, isolated communities eventually combined with neighboring communities, forming larger towns (like a city) with their own political systems (like a state).

City-State = Polis
Polis = Civilization in Ancient Greece
Climate
A lot like NC
Warm summers, mild winters
Most events took place outdoors
Minoans and Mycenaeans
Minoans = Crete (island)
Mycenae = Mainland

c. 1500 BC - 1100 BC

Trade, Trade, Trade
Minoans and Mycenaeans
Traded with many other cultures.
Cultural diffusion - a new idea or product spreads from one culture to another.
Colonies vs. Conquest
Greece vs Troy
Trojan War
War between Greeks and the city of Troy in modern-day Turkey
Homer's Iliad and Odyssey
Achilles and Hector
Greek Gods and Goddesses
Mythology and Religion
Greeks believed in several gods and goddesses, making them a polytheistic culture.

Some of the important ones:
Zeus - King of the Olympians, Hera = wife
Poseidon - God of the sea
Hades - God of the underworld
Athena - Goddess of wisdom and skill in warfare (guess which Greek city is named after her)
Ares - God of war
City-States Rise to Power -
Hellenic Age
Political Units of Ancient Greece
Fewer than 10,000 Residents
Had many different governments
Legacy in modern-day law, government, architecture, and more.
Governments
(Remember, -archy or -cracy means a type of government)
Monarchy
Mon = one
archy = rule or government

Monarchy = Rule by one person

Ex - King or Queen
Oligarchy
Oligo = few, little

Oligarchy = Rule by a few

Ex - Sparta, Egypt today
Aristocracy
Aristo = best, noble

Aristocracy = Rule by the nobility/wealthy

Ex - Athens before 600 BC
Democracy
Demo- people

Democracy - Rule by the people

Ex - United States
Athens and Sparta
Two of the most important city-states in Ancient Greece

Each leaves a distinct legacy on the world
Activity
In your groups, use the handout to compare and contrast Ancient Athens and Sparta. You can also use it to fill out your organizer.
Then decide which city-state you would rather live in and why.
Come up with some examples and be ready to discuss.
Athens = Thinkers
Sparta = Warriors
Persian Wars 490 - 479 BC
Persia gets greedy, starts taking over parts of Greece
City-States?
Fight battles on the Greek peninsula
Video
Ancient Greece -
Golden Age
What makes people remember Ancient Greece?
Why are we learning about it now?
Artistic and Literary Legacies of Ancient Greece:
ARCHITECTURE
ART
GOVERNMENT
LAW
SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS
Pericles 461-429 BC
Athenian statesman and general
He had 3 goals:
(1) Empower Athenian democracy
(2) Hold and strengthen Athens
(3) Beautify the city
Athens
Sparta
> 600 BC
Class conflicts
Conquer Messenians
594 BC
Draco, Solon, Reform
Builds Empire
600-500 BC
Cleisthenes, Democracy, Education
Strengthened army, discouraged expression
490-479 BC
Persian Wars
Persian Wars
461-429 BC
Golden Age of Pericles
Pressed for war with Athens
431-404 BC
Peloponnesian War
Wins Peloponnesian War
338 BC
Macedonian Invasion
Macedonian Invasion
http://www.history.com/videos/the-peloponnesian-war#the-peloponnesian-war
Marathon- 490 BC
Thermopylae- 480 BC
Salamis- 480 BC
Democracy
Oligarchy
-Draco, Solon, Cleisthenes
-Citizens to pass laws
-How is Greek law different from Hammurabi's Code?
-Vase Paintings

Sculptures
-Ideal human
-Harmony, order, and balance
-Several new styles of government
-Basis for American Democracy
-What were the styles of government in Ancient Greece?
-Thinkers, Philosophers, foundation of education.
-Why did the Greeks value education?
Socrates
Plato
Aristotle
Drama

-Tragedy, Comedy

Sophocles, Aeschylus, Euripides
Aristarchus
Eratosthenes
Ptolemy
Columns, Arches

-Parthenon, Colossus at Rhodes, Temples to gods

-Many are still standing today.
Anybody know what building this is?
So what happened?
Rivalry between Athens and Sparta =
Peloponnesian War

431-404 BC



What did Athenians value? What about Spartans?



Who do you think will win?
Religious Practices

-Rituals and festivals to honor the gods

Ex. Drama performances, Olympic Games
Alexander the Great
After Athens and Sparta battle it out, the two city-states are weakened and never regain their past glory
Golden Age = OVER
One person who takes advantage of the weakened city-states is
PHILIP II of MACEDONIA, father of Alexander.
Philip II comes to power in 359 BC (about 40 years after Peloponnesian War ends).
Builds a professional army and uses a 16x16 phalanx formation to crush resistance in northern Greece.
By the time Athens and Thebes (another city-state) stand up to Philip
in 338 BC, the Macedonians conquer Greece
in the battle of Chaeronea.
2 years later, Philip is stabbed by a former guardsman and
Alexander becomes king of Macedonia in 336 BC.
In 13 years, he will
spread Greek culture across the world's largest empire.
This Age of Alexander is known as the
Hellenistic Age, a fusion of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian cultures.
Alexander had several goals, but his main goal was to complete his father's goal of conquering Persia and beyond.
Not only did he conquer Persia, he made it to the Indus Valley in 326 BC before his war-weary soldiers turned back for home.
Engineering an Empire
Video with questions
Info on Alexander and his conquests and a look into the Hellenistic Age
Make sure you pay attention because you may see these questions again
Full transcript