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Discovery of Light and Sound

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jezreel cometa

on 10 October 2013

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Transcript of Discovery of Light and Sound

Discovery of Light and Sound
15th Century
During the 15th century the sound of full triads became common, and towards the end of the 16th century the system of church modes began to break down entirely, giving way to the functional tonality which was to dominate western art music for the next three centuries. Polyphony became increasingly elaborate throughout the 14th century, with highly independent voices: the beginning of the 15th century showed simplification, with the voices often striving for smoothness. This was possible because of a greatly increased vocal range in music – in the Middle Ages, the narrow range made necessary frequent crossing of parts, thus requiring a greater contrast between them.
Group 1 (G8-1 SHS) Air Shuffle
Towards the end of the 15th century, polyphonic sacred music (as exemplified in the masses ofJohannes Ockeghem and Jacob Obrecht) had once again become more complex, in a manner that can perhaps be seen as correlating to the stunning detail in the painting at the time.
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. At 15th Century it was discovered. In the 14th century, Flanders introduced a mechanical bell-ringer controlled by a rotating cylinder. Similar designs appeared in barrel organs (15th century), musical clocks (1598), and etc……….

15th-Century ruins discovered during construction of Apple's new madrid flagship the light rail transit. The light was also discovered the curvature of light through atmospheric refraction at 15th Century.
16th Century
• All light rays refract and converge on one point at retina
• Speed of light is measured here.
• Light moves through luminiferous ether.
• White light composed of all colors, color is light.
• The first telescope was invented by Hans Lippershey.
• [LATERNA MAGICA], the earliest form of projection device was invented by Kircher.
• Grimaldi, in Italy, discovered optical diffraction and observed its periodic nature. {1ST DEFRACTION}
• Huygens (hoi'gens) was a Dutch scientist, who thought that light consisted of waves, not particles, as did [NEWTON]. Both theories had strong arguments in their favor.
• Newton was first to formulate the corpuscular theory of light. Newton said that luminous bodies radiate energy in particles or corpuscles, and that these particles are ejected in straight lines.
• Color is an electromagnetic wave phenomenon. It is a sensation produced when light stimulates the retina of the eye, and the brain interprets this sensation as 'color'.

• In 1678 [HUYGENS] discovered the polarization of light by double refraction in calcite. Polarized light is a special type of light. It occurs in nature and can also be manmade. Ordinary light consists of a mixture of waves vibrating in all directions perpendicular to its line of propagation (or travel). Polarized light consists of the electric or magnetic waves all confined to one plane. Polarized light can be obtained by reflection (depend on the angle of incidence) and it can also be obtained by double refraction in certain crystals, such as calcite.
• Over the centuries, many efforts have been made to compare color to sound and to link the two media into a single systematic language. The French Jesuit, Louis Bertrand Castel claimed that he was inspired by Kircher, and was the first to create an actual [COLOR ORGAN]. Castel called his device 'Clavessin Oculaire'. The device consisted of a remodeled harpsichord with a keyboard. Padre gave his first recital in Paris on December 21, 1734.
1. Marin Mersenne - (1640) first measured the speed of sound in air.
2. Robert Boyle - (1660) discovered that sound waves must travel in a medium.
3. Sir Isaac Newton - (late 1660's) formulated a relationship between the speed of sound in a medium and the density and compressibility in a medium.

Domestic activities were greatly restricted after sunset, when the only sources of light were the fire in the hearth and candles or rushlights. The light from rushlights and tallow candles was poor and they gave off an unpleasant smell. Beeswax candles gave a better light and were less smelly, but they were also much more expensive and tended to be reserved for special occasions.
17th Century
'A woman reading by Candle-light' by Frans van Mieris the elder, c.1665; black chalk on vellum.
18th Century
• In the latter part of the century, the "floating oil wick lamp" was introduced in France, quickly replaced by a device known as a glass chimney. The glass chimney is essentially an oil lamp enclosed in glass, which makes the flame more stable and less likely to flicker. The light created by the glass chimney was much brighter than regular candlelight. Additionally, the color of the glass could be changed to create different moods in lighting.
• Prior to the use of electricity, the majority of theatres depended upon gaslight for illumination. However gas was expensive, difficult to control and therefore required constant attention. The first "spotlight" was known as limelight and was introduced by British engineer Thomas Drummond. The intensity of the spotlight is created by heating calcium carbonate combined with an oxygen and hydrogen flame. This effect provided a much more natural-looking type of light and was also able to be focused to create a specific "spot" or pool of light onstage. It was also helpful in creating stage illusions for the sun and the moon.
• The telephone was invented in 1876 by Scotsman Alexander Graham Bell. He originally dubbed it the "electrical speech machine," but thankfully this was changed. Bell opened the very first telephone exchange in New Haven in 1878. Over the years, the telephone has been adapted, and today almost everyone carries a cell phone with them. In addition, without the telephone, we wouldn't have the Internet, as it relies on phone lines to exchange information.

• Thomas Edison invented the phonograph in 1877 while he was working on a telephone transmission device. It was a precursor to the record player, but played cylinders, rather than vinyl records. The phonograph could both record and play back sound. Although this doesn't seem too impressive today, it was astounding to people in the 19th century. Without the invention of the phonograph, we wouldn't have any recorded music, so we would never have known CDs and MP3s.

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19th Century
Candles remained an important form of domestic lighting throughout the nineteenth century. Improvements included the mechanization of the production process, which made them more affordable, and the introduction of clean, odorless paraffin candles.
Girl Writing by Lamplight', William Henry Hunt, c. 1850; oil on canvas.
Thomas Lambert obtained a patent on the use of celluloid as a recording medium. Celluloid was one of the very first forms of plastic. It was rigid, but far from unbreakable as Columbia and the Indestructible Record Company claimed. This surface allowed for more frequencies to be recorded.

Celluloid was being used in England to make the Neophone disc which came in sizes as large as 22 inches in diameter.
Discs pressed using shellac were created by Pathe in Europe. The Pathe disc had wide grooves and were played using a large blue sapphire stylus. The playing groove started at the center and spiraled outward. Both of these discs had problems because of warping.

The Automatic Entertainer was the first Juke Box style machine. It was created by John Gabel and was produced by the Automatic Machine and Tool Company. The Automatic Entertainer had a magnetic coin detector and was run by a hand wound spring motor. Winding the motor changed the record and needle at the same time. It had twenty four ten inch records which could be chosen by turning a knob. It was encased on three sides with glass. The cabinet was over 5 feet tall with a large horn coming from the top.

The recording of ON WITH MOTLEY FROM I PAGLIACCI, by Enrico Caruso, was the first recording to sell a million copies. Enrico Caruso was an Italian opera singer
Thomas Edison developed a new longer playing wax cylinder that played double the length of time, up to 4 minutes.

Thomas Edison introduced the Blue Amberol cylinder which had a plaster of Paris core wrapped in celluloid.

Thomas Edison introduced his model of a disc playing phonograph, the Edison Diamond Disc Player.

Henry Stroller and Harry Pfannenstiehl worked on synchronizing recorded sound with movie playback. This system used two electric motors one for the record player and one for the film projector. The sound
Lee De Frost introduced his sound-on-film process.

In 1925 Brunswick introduced the first full electric player. The diaphragm, soundbox, and hollow tone arm were now replaced by a solid moving arm with a magnetic pick up. It contained an amplifying unit, vacuum tubes, an electric turntable, and a loudspeaker.

DON JUAN was the first sound-on-disc movie released by the Vitaphone corporation.

Blumlein obtained a patent for a stereo record cutting system.
Sound was divided into three levels: low, middle, and high frequencies for a three way speaker. This was not used in home sound systems until the 1960s.

During World War II records were made to be sent to the troops. These 16 inch records were called V discs. V discs contained a little of everything, from swing music to busy street sounds.

The first transistor record players were now for sale. Many of new systems were very compact in size. The Japanese companies Sony and Panasonic were the leaders in making smaller, portable, low priced stereos.

The Philips Company introduced the compact cassette tape cartridge although it did not take hold until five years later. The larger eight tack tape cartridge would be popular first.

The first tape cassette player available in the U.S. was a portable model made by the Norelco Company, the Carry Corder.

Sony introduced the Walkman cassette player. This player was called the Walkabout. It was a very small battery powered player with little headphones. Other major companies followed Sony into the small personal cassette player market. In the next six years, the Walkman would be much improved upon. The small personal cassette players sold by the millions.

Philips was working on a digital audio disc playback system, DAD. Working with Philips, Sony developed an improved method of encoding digital sound. The PCM chip was also used. Their combined work led to the creation of the CD.

Philips now began to show their compact disc. 1982

The compact disc sold slowly. In 1988 CDs finally out sold vinyl records. The cassette tape was still the top seller.

Sony made DAT, Digital Audio Tape, available to the American public.The Data Discman, a palm sized unit that could play back sound and images, was created. Through the 1990s, the CDs and CD players became the superior standard in recording and playback of recorded sound.

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Videos 3 and 4
• 17th century : Moons of Jupiter by Galileo Galilei
• 17th century : Sunspots by Johannes and David Fabricius, Christoph Scheiner and Galileo Galilei
• 17th century : Principle of relativity by Galileo Galilei
• 17th century : Newton's laws of motion by Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton
• 17th century : Classical mechanics and inverse square law of gravity (Newton's law of universal gravitation) by Isaac Newton

21st Century
In light and sound, we have our two most prominent senses - two of our most vital tools for communicating with the outside world. They are so fundamental to us that the very concepts invade our everyday language. For example, 'listen', 'look', 'see' all have many more meanings in common use than just their scientific ones, which isn't the case with some of the other terms we'll meet. For example, the word 'transparent' is fairly clear in meaning.
Modern Inventions of 2000
• The mystery of Ginger.
• Environmentally friendly transformer fluid from vegetable oils invented by T.V. Oommen.
• FluidSense infusion pump invented (automatic and standardized intravenous applicator).

Modern Inventions of 2001
• The first draft of the human genome is completed.
• AbioCor artificial heart invented by Abiomed - the Abiocor represents groundbreaking medical miniaturization technology. Nuvaring birth control invented by Organon.
• Artificial liver invented by Dr. Kenneth Matsumura and Alin Foundation.
• Fuel cell bike invented by Aprilia.
• Self-cleaning windows invented by PPG Industries.
• On October 23, 2001 Apple Computers publicly announced their portable music digital player the iPod, created under project codename Dulcimer.
• Time Magazine Modern Inventions of the Year 2001

The first Television in the broadcast media came out and the inventors were Philo Farnsworth and Vladmir Zworykin. It changed the way we receive information and entertainment by providing a visual format to the sound.The initial televisions were black and white it became available in colour.As the years passed television developed to what it is now.
20th Century
These were first released in Japan.Originaly they were large bulky things and designed as walkytalkies.But since then they have been constantly being upgraded to the devices we use now. The first mobile phone was invented in 1973 by Motorola .It was too expensive for many people to purchase. It was not until the mid 1990’s that people started using mobile phones.
FIBRE OPTICS is said to be the backbone of communication initially. It largely allowed the Internet revolution to happen. Internet was designed and it revolutionized the sharing of information among people globaly.It also lead to the free transfer of data across networks through emails . Internet is said to reside in almost every house .It has greatly influenced the youth to such an extent that they can stay without food but not without internet connection
One of the major invention was that of the PERSONAL COMPUTER which brought a great revolution in the world.In personal computers came into exsistence with a screen ,keyboard and memory disk by IBM. Gradually this field showed great enhancement to technology giving birth to the new concept of handy devices.
Modern Inventions of 2004
• Ka-on or Flower Sound are plants that play music invented by the Japanese based Let's Corporation. Flowers bouquets will act as loudspeakers when placed in a special vase that has electronics hidden in the base.
• Intel Express Chipsets - Grantsdale and Alderwood are the code names of Intel's newest chips that will provide superior and inexpensive built-in sound and video capacities for the PC including the ability to do high definition video editing without additional computer cards.

Modern Inventions of 2009
• New inventions of 2009 include: a new computer interface called the sixth sense, and a retinal implant for the blind.
• Inventors' Pick for Top Inventions of 2009

Modern Inventions of 2010
• J. Craig Venter Institute creates the first synthetic genome for a bacterial cell
• The Neanderthal Genome Project presented preliminary genetic evidence that interbreeding did likely take place and that a small but significant portion of Neanderthal admixture is present in modern non-African populations.

Modern Inventions of 2012
• Higgs boson is discovered at CERN (confirmed to 99.999% certainty)

Modern Inventions of 2002
• Braille Glove invented by Ryan Patterson.
• Phone tooth invented by James Auger and Jimmy Loizeau..
• Foveon Camera Chip invented by Richard Merrill.
• Date Rape Drug Spotter invented by Francisco Guerra.
• Solar Tower invented by Jorg Schlaich.
• Virtual keyboard invented by Canesta and VKB.
• Time Magazine Modern Inventions of the Year 2002

Modern Inventions of 2003
• Grigori Perelman presents proof of the Poincaré Conjecture.
• Toyota's Hybrid Car
• Ice Bike invented by Dan Hanebrink
• Time Magazine Modern Inventions of the Year 2003

Air Shuffle
Prepared by:
Jezreel Anne Cometa
Jairah Learns Comia
Joshua Calderon
Ronella Lacsamana
Kimverly Grimpluma
Princes Mariane Leyesa
Zyrine Nicole Liwag
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