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PFMS Text Structures
Transcript of PFMS Text Structures
"Understanding the expository text structures gives readers a better shot at determining important information when reading nonfiction...The text in standardized tests and traditional textbooks frequently falls into one or another of these text structures. If students know what to look for in terms of text structure, they grasp the meaning more easily."
--- From Nonfiction Matters by Stephanie Harvey
Compare and Contrast
Cause and Effect
The author lists items or events in numerical or chronological order.
First, second, then, next, finally, before, on, at, directions
What steps are listed? What are the major events that occur? What is the final outcome?
Timeline, Steps/Directions, Cycle/Circle
The author explains how two or more things are alike and/or how they are different.
Differs from, Similar to, In contrast, Both, Either, However, On the other hand
What items are being compared? In what ways are these items different?
Venn diagram, T-chart
The author lists one or more causes or events and the resulting effect or effects.
Reasons why, If...then, As a result of, Therefore, Because, Since, So
What happened? What was the reason for...?
Cause and Effect Web
The author describes a topic, idea, person, place or thing by listing characteristics, features, and examples.
For example, For instance, Characteristics are, Such as, To illustrate
What specific idea is being described? How is it being described? What is important to remember about it?
Concept Map, Webs
Problem and Solution
The author states a problem and lists one or more solutions for the problem.
Problem is..., Dilemma is..., Puzzle is..., Solved, Question..., Answer
What is the problem? Why is this a problem? What can be fixed?
Problem/Solution Web Fishbone, T-chart, Puzzle Piece
Building Comprehension Skills
through the Use of Text Structures
In order for students to access increasingly complex text, schools must provide multiple instructional supports that explain and demonstrate how strong readers use text structures to better comprehend text.
This can be done by EXPLICITLY teaching common text structures through...
The goal is not for students to simply identify text structure, but to use their knowledge of text structure to improve their own reading and writing.
Text structures are not simply taught and then ignored. They are used all day, every day as good educational practice in all classrooms.
Reading for Information Anchor Standard 5
Text Structure Examples & Sort
Find a Peanut Butter & Jelly Partner.
Using the example, together rewrite the sentence "The first day of school is always an interesting day." to fit the five text structures.
When finished, sort the paragraphs in your envelope by their main text structure. Tape to posters around the room.
We will share out in twenty minutes!
Text Structure & Signal Words
Can you regroup in 30 seconds or less?
Once in your teams, work to identify the main text structure of each paragraph. Be sure to underline signal words. Bonus points to teams who identify an accompanying graphic organizer.