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Water Beneath the Surface

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by

Katelynn Dorn

on 9 December 2014

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Transcript of Water Beneath the Surface

Water Beneath the Surface
Groundwater
seeps down through soil
90%
1/5 in U.S.
Zones of Groundwater
zone of saturation- above impermeable rock
water table- upper surface
zone of aeration
capillary fringe- soaks up water from zone of saturation
middle region- remains dry except during rainfalls
soil-water region
Topography and the Water Table
Water table rises during periods of rain and matches topography
Flattens during drought
perched water tables- areas of impermeable rock with collected water
Conserving Groundwater
renewable but limited
pollution- waste dumps, leaking underground storage
fertilizers and pesticides
sewage
If too much groundwater is pumped from an aquifer near the ocean, the water table may drop below sea level and allow salt water to flow into the aquifer and contaminate the water supply.
Groundwater Conservation (cont.)
monitor level of local water table and discourage excess pumping
purify used water
pump used water back into ground
Movement of Groundwater
influenced by permeability and gravity
gradient of water table
Permeability
how freely water passes through open spaces
a rock can have high porosity, but not not have high permeability
rocks with larger particles usually have better permeability (sandstone)
limestone has interconnected cracks
clay- fine-grained particles, impermeable
Rock Properties that Affect Groundwater
Aquifer- body of rock that stores water
can be sediment or porous stone
porosity- % of open spaces
sorting- amount of particles that are the same size
particles of similar size have high porosity, particles of different sizes have low porosity
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