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Technology Enablers in Democratizing Power Grid

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Kalpesh Joshi

on 6 April 2018

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Transcript of Technology Enablers in Democratizing Power Grid

Technology Enablers in Democratizing Power Grid
Renewables, Energy Storage and Demand Response
Kalpesh Joshi
Research Scholar & Teaching Fellow
IIT Gandhinagar
Data source: S P Sukhatme, "Can India’s future needs of electricity be met by renewable energy sources? A revised assessment", Current Science, 103 (10), Nov. 2012
Applications of BESS
BESS Project
BESS Project - Outline
Project objective: Analyze and Optimize BESS Performance
Utility: Avista Corporation, WA, USA
Laboratories: Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL, USA)
Schweitzer Engineering Lab., (Pullman, WA, USA)
University: Washington State University, Pullman, USA
Battery Energy Storage System
Renewables and associated problems
Forecasting of Generation - PV & Wind

Impact Investigation of small and large DGs on distribution network operations

Active and reactive power management in active distribution networks

Use of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS)

Energy management system for individual customers and at community level

Use Real Time Digital Simulation tools to model and simulate transient response of inverter based DGs during abnormal operating conditions
Active research areas
Facilities for Photovoltaic Research
Continuously monitored PV Plants
10 kWp PV plant with Polycrystalline Modules
10 kWp PV plant with Thin-Film Modules
Cumulative capacity of 3 PV plants - 120kWp
Real Time Digital Simulator from Opal

FPGA based Quad-core system for studies related to transient stability, protection and control of distribution systems with DGs, electromagnetic transients and FACTS controllers

Interface with real world systems by 256 digital and 128 analog I/O ports
TSPF Analysis
Generic solutions to case-specific issues may not yield best results
The Test Networks
Feeder Voltage Profiles
Results: IEEE 13 Node Test Feeder
Interaction of Capacitor and Voltage Regulator
Daily Load Profiles
Sequential Time Simulations (STS) Approach
IEEE 13 Node Test Feeder
Small area network, Dense load,
unbalance network topology
IEEE 34 Node Test Feeder
Big area network, Sparse loads,
Network topology - fairly balanced
Small Spot network, Fairly dense, cable-fed
VR-1 & VR-2 has predictable rise in number of TCOs in each phase with increasing PV penetration

Phase B and C in VR-1 respond with more TCOs in the presence of capacitors – collectively dominant over the reduction in phase-A’s TCOs

Exactly opposite trend – as compared to phase-wise trends in VR-1 – is exhibited by each phase in VR-2
Results: IITGN-VGEC Network
Effect on Power factor at source node
Effect on Daily Maximum Demand
Interaction of Capacitors & Voltage Regulators
Generalized Model for PV Array
Transmission System
Energy Shifting
Grid Flexibility
Distribution System
Improving Distribution System Efficiency
Outage Management of Critical Loads
Enhanced Voltage Control
Micro-grid Operations
Grid-connected and islanded micro-grid operations
Maximizing value of storage
Optimal Utilization of Energy Storage
BESS - Electrical Specs
Peak Power: 1.2 MW
Nominal Rating: 1 MWAC over 4 hours
Maximum Energy: 3.2 MWhAC
Voltage Tolerance: 400 VAC-10% to 480 VAC+10%
Round Trip Efficiency: Over 80%
Frequency Tolerance: 45 Hz to 65 Hz
Response Time: < 100 ms
Envelope: 41’W x 20’D x 9.5’H
Cycle and Design Life: Unlimited cycles over 20 years
Ambient Temp: -40C to +50C
Self Discharge: <2%
The Redox Flow Battery
Modeling & Validation
Feeder Modeling
Power flow validation
Time-Series power flow simulations
Impact Analysis
Feeder Voltage Profile
Power and Energy Losses
Tap changing ops
Reactive power flow
BESS Project - Stages and Work flow
Optimization & Feasibility
Volt/Var Control
Loss Minimization
Energy Shifting and Peak reduction
Feasibility studies for ancillary Services
Enhanced CVR
Co-optimization of two or more services
The Feeders
Feeder Specifications
Thank you!
Power Scenario in India
Base load is invariably provided by combustible fuels
Combustion based electricity supplies more than 3/4th of electricity demand of our country
More than half of the capacity addition for power generation is in the form of coal based power plants
Greenpeace estimates the coal reserves of India to last only for 17 years
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