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Biology: Fall Semester Review

Chapters 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 (Chapter 12 is covered in the DNA Part I Prezi and the DNA Part II Prezi)
by

Vanessa Dreessen

on 11 September 2014

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Transcript of Biology: Fall Semester Review

All matter is composed of particles called atoms
Atoms are composed of two main parts:
nucleus (protons and neutrons)
electron cloud (electrons found here)
most of the mass is found within the nucleus
subatomic particles have charges
electron = negative
proton = positive
neutron = neutral
element = one type of atom
isotope = same element, different mass (different # neutrons)
ion = same element, different charge (different # electrons)
karyotype = picture of chromosomes
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total)
Half of your chromosomes came from mother,
half from your father
Sex Chromosomes (23rd pair on karyotype)
Females = XX
Males = XY
the father determines the sex of the child
Pedigree
pattern of inheritance
square = male
circle = female
shaded = shows specific trait
Chapters 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14
Biology Semester Review
Science is the study of the natural world in order to explain and make predictions
Experiments can be carried out to prove or disprove a hypothesis.
example: spontaneous generation (pg. 12)
field studies are used when a controlled experiment is not possible
theory = well supported hypothesis over time
Characteristics of Living Things
Chapter 1
The Science of Biology
Chapter 2
The Chemistry of Life
Cell Theory
All living things are made of cells
Cells are the basic unit of life
New cells are produced by existing cells
Chapter 7, 8, 9
THE CELL
Mitosis
Chapter 10/11
Cell Division
The Father of Genetics
Chapter 11/14
Genetics
Chapter 12
DNA
based on the universal genetic code (DNA)
made of cells
maintain homeostasis
growth/development
reproduce
respond to environment
obtain/use energy
evolve
Bonds. Chemical Bonds.
Covalent = sharing of electrons between atoms
Single = sharing two electrons
Double = sharing four electrons
Triple = sharing six electrons
Ionic = taking/giving of electrons between atoms
compound = two or more atoms bonded together
Water!
Adhesive = attracted to other things
Cohesive = attracted to itself
Acid = pH under 7
Base = pH above 7
Macromolecules
Carbohydrates (sugars, starches)
Lipids (fats)
Proteins (enzymes, hair...)
Movement
Structure
Regulation
Transport
Nutrition
Defense
Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA)
The Who's Who of Cell Theory
Hooke = called it the "cell"
Leeuwenhoek = viewed microscopic life
Schleiden = all plants made of cells
Schwann = all animals made of cells
Virchow = new cells produced by pre-existing
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
no nucleus
no membrane bound organelles
bacteria
nucleus (stores genetic material)
membrane bound organelles
Organelles
What's Your Function?
Nucleus
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
Lysosomes
Mitochondria
Cytoskeleton
Cell membrane
Plants also have:
Chloroplasts
Cell wall
Photosynthesis
carbon dioxide + water + light = oxygen + glucose
Takes place in the Chloroplasts
Two Main Steps
Light Dependent (in the Thylakoid Membranes)
ETC
Photosystem II & I
In: Light, Water, NADP+, ADP
Out: NADPH, ATP
Light Independent (in the Stroma)
Calvin Cycle
In: NADPH, ATP
Out: Glucose
Cellular Respiration
oxygen + glucose = carbon dioxide + water + ATP
Takes place in the Cytoplasm & Mitochondria
Aerobic (WITH oxygen)
Glycolysis (in the cytoplasm)
Krebs Cycle (in the Mitochondrial Matrix)
ETC (on the Mitochondrial Inner Membrane)
Anaerobic (NO oxygen)
Glycolysis
Fermentation
Lactic Acid (Animals)
Alcoholic (Plants)
Meiosis
Occurs in SOMATIC cells
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Occurs in GAMETES (sex cells)
Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase II
Interphase
G1 Phase
S Phase
G2 Phase
Why?
Growth
Repair
Why?
Female: egg cells
Male: sperm cells
Gregor Mendel
Snow Pea Experiments
Studied traits
Genes = determine traits
Alleles = forms of a gene
Dominant = expressed when present
Recessive = expressed if dominant NOT present
Genotype = alleles present
Homozygous = alleles same (AA, aa)
Heterozygous = different alleles (Aa)
Phenotype = physical expression based on genotype
Mendel's Laws
1. Law of Segregation
2. Law of Independent Assortment
3. Law of Dominance
Not Always So Simple
Incomplete Dominance = neither is dominant, mixed expression (red snapdragon + white snapdragon = pink snapdragon)
Codominance = both are expressed individually (palamino horses, blood types A/B)
Polygenic Trait = one trait determined by many different genes (eye color)
Mulitiple Alleles = one gene has three or more possible variations (ABO blood types)
Sex-Linked = on the sex chromosomes
Genetics and YOU
Human Genome = the DNA sequence coding for your genetic traits
Prediction
Punnett Squares
Monohybrid (one trait)
Dihybrid (two traits)
Predicting genotypic and phenotypic ratio of offspring
DNA Replication
Protein Synthesis
Occurs during S Phase of Interphase
A new copy of DNA is made
Who?
Griffith = Pneumonia causing bacteria proved genetic material was exchanged
Avery = DNA could transform the bacteria
Hershey & Chase = used bacteriophage to prove DNA is the genetic molecule
Wilkins & Franklin = first to photograph DNA
Watson & Crick = discovered chemical structure of the DNA molecule (double helix of nucleotides)
Structure
DNA is a double helix of two chains of nucleotides
one nucleotide =
one deoxyribose sugar
one phosphate
one nitrogen base (A-T, G-C)
backbone
(pyramidine)
(pyramidine)
(purine)
(purine)
Three steps:
1. DNA molecule is unzipped by
helicase (enzyme)
2. Correct base pairs are brought in by
DNA Polymerase (enzyme) to
complement the separated strands
- A to T
- G to C
3. Deoxyribose/Phosphate backbone
is completed
More in depth review of DNA Structure & Replication:
http://prezi.com/j0kl_vl_ir8u/dna-part-i-review/
Transcription (in nucleus)
Translation (in cytoplasm)
1. RNA polymerase splits DNA
2. RNA polymerase brings in matching bases
(A-U, G-C)
3. mRNA strand is spliced
- introns stay in the nucleus
- exons are put together to form final mRNA
4. mRNA is exported out of the nucleus
5. DNA reforms the double helix
6. Transcription is complete
1. Initiation
Ribosome (rRNA) attaches to the mRNA strand
2. Elongation
Ribosome (rRNA) reads codons
tRNA matches with anticodon
tRNA drops off specific amino acid
Ribosome moves down, reading codons
Amino Acid chain is formed (protein)
3. Termination
Ribosome reaches a STOP codon
Protein is released
Ribosome and mRNA separate
4. Translation is complete
More in depth review of Transcription/Translation
http://prezi.com/txso37l3nsg6/dna-part-ii-review/
What is
SCIENCE
?
1
2
7, 8, 9
10, 11
11, 14
12
Cell Transport
Materials must pass through the cell membrane (phospholipid bilayer)
Passive Transport: no energy required
diffusion
osmosis
facilitated diffusion
Active Transport: energy (ATP) required
Early Application
Farming!
Breeding
Selective Breeding: choosing traits to enhance
Inbreeding: breeding closely related to keep traits consistent
Hybridization: combining qualities from two very different parents
Hybrid Vigor: strong, hearty combination of species
Hybrids are usually STERILE (cannot reproduce)
Genetic Engineering
(Chapter 13)
Tools
Restriction Enzymes
Gel Electrophoresis
Vectors
Plasmid
Restriction
Enzymes
Gel Electrophoresis
Plasmids
How?
What?
Full transcript