Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.



No description

Kristopher Vosk

on 19 February 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Biofuels

The History of Biofuels: The Transition For a while petroleum fuel was the only fuel source people were interested in until the 1970s and 1980s when the idea of using biofuels was revisited in the United States. One of the milestone events for Biofuel occurred in 1970 with the passage of the Clean Air Act by the EPA. This act allowed for the EPA to regulate emission standards for pollutants like carbon monoxide and ozone. This set the stage for a need to develop cleaner-burning fuels. In 1979 crude oil was priced at $14 per barrel and by 1981 the price had increased to $35 per barrel, this jump made scientists and researchers begin to search for a cheaper, cleaner type of fuel. The wheels were in motion for a transition and in 1982, the first International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils was held in Fargo, N.D. This conference was held to deal with matters ranging from fuel cost and the effects of vegetable oil to fuel additives and extraction methods. With such steps by the government as the Clean Air Act and EPACT, alternative fuel sources were essentially being pushed onto the country.(Biofuel History) The History Of Biofuels: The Beginning Biofuels actually preceeded petroleum based sources of fuel. Many people do not know that corn based ethanol was actually the source of fuel that was used to power Henry Fords Model T car back in the 1800's.(Sippin) As well as the fact that when German mechanical engineer Rudolf Diesel invented the worlds first diesel engine, it ran off of peanut oil. During this time these fuel sources were not refered to as Biofuels, but these practices have been around for quite some time and are no where near "new".(Inventors) The introduction of petroleum based fuels appealed to both Ford and Diesel for the obvious reasons that there was a large supply, it was efficient and overall cheaper.(How Biodiesel Works) Biofuel The History of Biofuels: Present/Future In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) required that by 2015, 15 billion gallons of ethanol must be added into the fuel supply and 36 billion gallons by 2022. EISA also puts a cap on the amount of corn that can be allocated for fuel at 15 billion gallons so there is not too much interference with the food supply. The future of Biofuels is expected to come from cellulosic ethanol, which might include algae or other organisms.(The Future Of Biofuels) Biofuels: The Global Scale We are currently in the stage of not only the United States, but many other countries as well are starting to practice with biofuels. Brazil is second behinf the US in production of ethanol, but instead of a corn based they use sugar cane, a cheap cash crop.(Fuel Ethanol in Brazil) Recent statistics on biofuel production and consumption in Europe are showing that between 2010 and 2011 biofuel consumption increased by 3%, which converts into 13.6 million tonnes of oil equivalent used in 2011 compared to 13.2 million toe in 2010.(Global Biofuels) Europe is not only consuming but is also producing these Biofuels, In 2010, The European Biodiesel Board estimated that Europe Biodiesel production was at about 9.6 million metric tons. Many other countries including China have been increasing their consumption of biofuels, as well as production.(Global Biofuels)
It has become obvious that Biofuels and excessive use of crude oil has become a world issue and falls into a massive scale and is arguabully one of the most important topics of discussion in todays world, especially with the numbers over the last 30 years that show the types of transitions the world is going through. Ethanol Ethanol is an alcohol-based fuel made by fermenting and distilling starch crops, such as corn. It can also be made from cellulosic biomass, this includes trees and grasses. The use of ethanol can reduce our dependency on foreign oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.(Ethanol) Biofuels are any liquid, solid or gaseous fuel that is produced from some type of organic material. There is a wide range of organic materials used for biofuel production which include such materials as starch, corn, wheat or sugar cane, vegetable oils and animal fats; wood and straw; algae and organic waste as well as other sources.(Napier) Biofuels can be used to replace gasoline, diesel fuel, home heating oil, plastics, textiles and many other products used on a daily basis.(EarthEasy) The fuel of the future is going to come from fruit like that sumac out by the road, or from apples, weeds, sawdust – almost anything,”-Henry Ford “There is fuel in every bit of vegetable matter that can be fermented.”-Henry Ford vs.
Petroleum Biofuels by Kris Vosk “Alcohol makes a beautiful, clean and efficient fuel. Alcohol can be manufactured from corn stalks, and in fact from almost any vegetable matter capable of fermentation…We need never fear the exhaustion of our present fuel supplies so long as we can produce an annual cop of alcohol to any extent desired.”- Alexander Graham Bell With Ethanol
$3.52 VS. Just Petroleum (Predicted)
$4.60 Cost in 2011 Comparison Between Ethanol and Petroleum Fuel In 2011, ethanol incorporation into fuel lowered prices by an average of $1.09 per gallon.
The average American household consumed 1,124 gallons of gasoline in 2011, ethanol lowered the average household spending by more than $1,200.
Since 2000, ethanol has kept gasoline prices an average of $0.29 per gallon cheaper and based on this information ethanol has helped save Americans and the economy more than $477 billion in gasoline expenditures since 2000, which is an average of $39.8 billion a year.
(Renewable Fuels Association) Ethanol Pros and Cons Pros
Renewable energy source
Reduces emissions of toxic gases and particulate matter(Buzzle)
Cost effective production
Supports rural economies
Increases local and state tax revenue
Reduces fossil fuel imports Cons
With boaters causes fiberglass fuel tank corrosion, blocking of the filters and increased contamination.(Buzzle)
Questionable using food crop for fuel.(Buzzle)
Energy Intensive Production
Land Use
Energy Levels Production of Ethanol (Dry Mill) The corn is passed through a hammer mill, which grinds it into a fine flour, then enzymes and water are added to convert starch into glucose. Yeast is added to the mash to convert the sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide. The mash is continually agitated and cooled until the ethanol concentration has been maximized. The fermented mash, now contains about 20% alcohol plus all the non-fermentable solids from the corn and yeast cells. The mash is pumped to the continuous flow, multi-column distillation system where the ethanol is removed from the solids and the water. The ethanol leaves the top of the final column at about 95% concentration, and the residue mash, called stillage, is transferred from the base of the column to the co-product processing area. After the ethanol is removed the residue corn solids are condensed and dried to produce distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a nutrient rich animal feed. During the process of converting corn solids into DDGS, we can extract corn oil or proteins used to produce renewable industrial products. Some of these plants also capture the carbon dioxide released from the yeast during fermentation, which are sold to a diverse customer base located throughout the Midwest for use in food processing, water treatment, fire suppression and agriculture.(Poet) It costs between $1 and $1.20 to make a gallon of ethanol.(Facts About Ethanol) Energy Usage for Ethanol Production Ethanol Processing Energy Use for Wet and Dry Mills Energy Used to Make Ethanol From Corn and Cellulose (Btus per Gallon of Ethanol) Market Value Method for Allocating Energy for Corn Wet Milling
(1 bushel=52 pounds) (How Much Energy Does It Take to Make a Gallon of Ethanol? David Lorenz and David Morris ) (Pros and Cons of Ethanol Biofuel) (Pros and Cons of Ethanol Biofuel) Energy Usage for Petroleum As we can see here, the total annual product energy requirement for a refinery is 2,101 Trillion Btu. This is 68% of the of the 3,086 trillion Btu per year of process energy consumed by U.S. petroleum refineries in 2002.(Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum RefiningProcesses) Compare The U.S. produced 13.9 billion U.S. liquid gallons (52.6 billion liters) of ethanol fuel in 2011, this used 7.7 trillion Btu.(Renewable Fuels Association)
And as we see in 2002 oil refineries were using 3,086 trillion Btu.
So right now ethanol uses less energy, but the numbers are not that much off. The ethanol is using less energy, but has many of the same trade offs in the processesing step as petroleum refining, but the difference is when the fuel is actually used that is when differences are seen through less pollution. Ethanol Waste Ethanol waste IS renewable. Once the ethanol has been extracted, the ethanol waste is usually dried and sold, often as a livestock feed product or a very nutritious, high protein dietary supplement for cattle. It is sold in various forms including,
distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) this is most common and is sold to the animal feed industry
distillers dried solubles (DDS)
distillers dried grains (DDG)

From each 56 pound (25.4 kg) bushel of corn, 2.7 gallons (10.2 liters) of ethanol and roughly 17 pounds (7.7 kg) of ethanol waste are produced.
For every 1,000 bushels (25.4 metric tons) of corn used in the production of ethanol, about 8 tons (7.2 metric tons) of DDGS ethanol waste is produced. (wisegeek) Ethanol Health Effects (Positive and Negative) Positives
Using ethanol in place of gasoline helps to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by up 30-50%
In 2011, ethanol use reduced reduced CO2-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions by 25.3 million metric tons. That is the emissions of 4 million vehicles.
Ethanol reduces tailpipe carbon monoxide emissions by as much as 30%, toxics content by 13% (mass) and 21% (potency), and tailpipe fine particulate matter (PM) emissions by 50%
Ethanol reduces smog pollution
(Ethanol Facts)
Reduced emissions of inhalation carcinogens benzene and 1,3-butadiene.
(Environmental Working Group) Negatives
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) being released by the ethanol plants include formaldehyde and acetic acid, both carcinogens. As well as methanol, all listed as hazardous pollutants.
VOC emissions ranging from 120 to 1,000 tons a year, EPA has named any plant producing more then 100 tons a "major pollution source".
(Ethanol Pollution Surprise) Chemical Air Pollutants And What Ethanol Does With Them Ethanols Effects on Biodiversity Increasing corn for biofuel production reduces biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes.

Soybean Aphid
Soybean Aphid control reduced w/ increasing % corn in local landscape.(1.5 km)
Aphid predators less prevalent on corn.(ex. Ladybug)
Less available to control soybean aphid.

Corn Rootworm
Corn in monoculture more prone to corn rootworm.
Corn in rotations is less susceptible to corn rootworm.
There will be adaptation to corn-soy in some regions, which causes more pesticides being applied into the soil.
As a result of this scientists will develop a Bt corn rootworm-resistant corn and entomologists are concerned with evolution of resistance to Bt insecticidal toxin. Competition Between Corn for Food and Fuel (Food or Fuel) The argument is that such a huge percentage of the corn crop is going to make ethanol which is causing food pricing rise and fall as well as food shortages around the world.(Food or Fuel) Corn Ethanol and Climate Change (Freese) Per gallon, corn ethanol will result in 36% more greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline in 2012 and 12% more greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline in 2017. By the year 2022, the average gallon of corn ethanol will achieve only 15% percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions as compared to gasoline. The truth is corn ethanol increases greenhouse gas emissions at present and will do so for a number of years before any reductions will be seen. (Corn Ethanol and Climate Change) Does Ethanol Usage Really Matter? The worlds current population is 315,353,335(U.S. Census)
There are 209,000,000 licensed drivers in the U.S.(Clean Technica)
The average american drives 13,476 miles a year.(American Driving Habits)
As of 2/11/13, the average gallon of petroleum gasoline in America is $3.79(EIA)
Average price of E85 Ethanol fuel is currently $3.31(E85 Prices)
As of February 2012, the average American car gets 23.2 MPG(True Car)
E85 Price:$3.31 E85 MPG: 23.2
E85: Best
$0.143 per mile
7.009 miles per $

Gas Price:$3.79 Gas MPG:23.2
Gas: Worse
$0.163 per mile
6.121 miles per $ (E85 Prices) $1,886.64 Average American/Year $2,196.59 Average American/Year On a country wide scale: $594,958,215,944 On a country wide scale: $692,701,982,128 Difference in Ethanol Savings $97,743,766,184 Difference/Individual
$309.95 Obviously, there is savings in ethanol and many "green" organizations and government acts are showing the incentive to make these types of biofuels a requirement, the EPA already has law in effects such as how they require that 15.2 billions of gallons of ethanol be used this year, with that amount doubling by 2022.(Smart Planet) Clearly, there IS incentive for this fuel and it is not only promoted but it has become law. Calculate your distance/cost of gas/CO2 emissions to your current gas station, then find out the availability and location of your nearest bio fuel source. What is it? Is it worth the drive fuel wise? Is it cheaper fuel? Is it more fuel efficient? Costs? Compare this bio fuel location and your most commonly used gas station. Which is better? What is the difference in this bio fuel source and your current type of gasoline's CO2 levels? What is YOUR average per year spent on gas? Mileage? The Green Practice Basic Pros and Cons Of This Practice Pros
Saving money on gas.
Reducing your own personal environmental footprint
Reduces emissions of toxic gases.
Supporting a renewable resource and lowering dependency on foreign oil.
Supporting local tax revenue. Cons
Biofuels are still questionable sources of fuel.
Taking away from the food crop.(Ethanol)
Convenient for YOUR daily life.(Time, Distance,etc.)
Availability in the area. Works Cited "Average Fuel Economy for New Cars Sold In February 2012 Rises To 23.2 MPG According to TrueCar.com's TrueMPG." TrueCar Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://blog.truecar.com/2012/03/12/average-fuel-economy-for-new-cars-sold-in-february-2012-rises-to-23-2-mpg-according-to-truecar-coms-truempg/>.
"Biofuels." Biofuels. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
"The Biofuels FAQs: The Facts About Biofuels: Ethanol." The Biofuels FAQs: The Facts About Biofuels: Ethanol. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.energyfuturecoalition.org/biofuels/fact_ethanol.htm>.
"A Brief History of Biofuels." Triple Pundit RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
"CleanTechnica." CleanTechnica. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://cleantechnica.com/2010/01/06/4000000-fewer-vehicles-on-us-roads-in-2009/>.
"Corn-Based Ethanol." Ethanol. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.poet.com/ethanol>.
Dill, D. Monda, and C. Wilborn. WiseGeek. Conjecture, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-ethanol-waste.htm>.
"E85 Poll." E85 Prices. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://e85prices.com/>.
"Edinburgh Napier University." What Are Biofuels? N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
"Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes." Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes. N.p., Oct. 2006. Web. <http://www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/resources/petroleum_refining/pdfs/bandwidth.pdf>.
"EPA Could Curb Corn Ethanol Requirement in Gasoline." SmartPlanet. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/bulletin/epa-could-curb-corn-ethanol-requirement-in-gasoline/2438>.
"Ethanol." Ethanol. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/ethanol.shtml>.
"Ethanol Facts: Environment | RFA: Renewable Fuels Association." Ethanol Facts: Environment | RFA: Renewable Fuels Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ethanolrfa.org/pages/ethanol-facts-environment>.
"Ethanol Pollution Surprise." CBSNews. CBS Interactive, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-205_162-508006.html>.
"Ethanol-Gasoline Fuel Blends May Cause Human Health Risks and Engine Issues." Environmental Working Group. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.ewg.org/biofuels/report/Ethanol-Health-Risks-and-Engine-Damage>.
"Food Or Fuel? - American Corn Grown for Ethanol Could Feed Hundreds of Millions." Food Or Fuel? N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://foodorfuel.weebly.com/>.
Freese, Bill. "Biodiversity Impacts of Biofuels: Focus on Ethanol from Corn." Arb.ca.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.arb.ca.gov/fuels/lcfs/workgroups/lcfssustain/03172011_freese.pdf>.
"Global Biofuels - an Overview." Global Biofuels - an Overview. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
"The History Of Biofuel." The History Of Biofuel. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
"How Biodiesel Works." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
"How Many Miles Do Americans Drive Per Year?" LoveToKnow. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://cars.lovetoknow.com/about-cars/how-many-miles-do-americans-drive-per-year>.
Lorenz, David, and David Morris. "How Much Energy Does It Take to Make a Gallon of Ethanol?" Ethanol.org. N.p., Aug. 1995. Web. <https://www.ethanol.org/pdf/contentmgmt/ILSR_energy_balance.pdf>.
"New University Study: Ethanol Reduced Gas Prices by More than $1 in 2011 | RFA: Renewable Fuels Association." New University Study: Ethanol Reduced Gas Prices by More than $1 in 2011 | RFA: Renewable Fuels Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ethanolrfa.org/news/entry/new-university-study-ethanol-reduced-gas-prices-by-more-than-1-in-2011/>.
"Pros and Cons of Ethanol Biofuel." LoveToKnow. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Ethanol_Biofuel_Pros_and_Cons>.
"Rudolf Diesel - Inventor of the Diesel Engine Rudolf Diesel." Rudolf Diesel - Inventor of the Diesel Engine Rudolf Diesel. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
"This Week In Petroleum - Energy Information Administration." This Week In Petroleum - Energy Information Administration. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.eia.gov/oog/info/twip/twip.asp>.
"U.S. & World Population Clocks." U.S. & World Population Clocks. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html>.
Valder, Roshan. Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 20 Sept. 2011. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ethanol-fuel-pros-and-cons.html>.
Witting, Victoria, and Kate McMahon. "Corn Ethanol and Climate Change." Friends of The Earth.org. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://libcloud.s3.amazonaws.com/93/2c/d/514/Corn_ethanol_and_climate_change.pdf>.
Macedo Isaias, M. Lima Verde Leal and J. Azevedo Ramos da Silva (2004)."Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the production and use of fuel ethanol in Brazil" (PDF). Secretariat of the Environment, Government of the State of São Paulo. Archived from the original on 2008-05-28Renewable Fuels Association (2012-03-06). "Acelerating Industry Innovation - 2012 Ethanol Industry Outlook". Renewable Fuels Association. Retrieved 2012-05-06. See pp. 10. (Environmental Working Group)
Full transcript