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316 Lecture 3 Spring18

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Sara Tomczuk

on 6 April 2018

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Transcript of 316 Lecture 3 Spring18

Weberian Foundations
Instrumentally Rational
means to a calculated end
Weber's Micro- Approach
Methodological Individualism
Social action needs to be understood by individuals'

beliefs
values
emotional attachments
material interests
Ideal Types
theoretical constructs used to compare empirical cases
Motives
Aim of sociology should be to understand purposive action

motive - a subjective basis for social action

rationality postulate - self-interested behavior should be the starting point for the analysis of social action
Value Rational
driven by an ethical, aesthetic, religious or other value which is important independent of the action's success
Affectual
emotion-driven action
Traditional
determined by ingrained habituation
Durkheimian Functionalism
macro
sociological approach
social order is based on norms
society tends to endure and reproduce itself in a similar form
are NOT normative standards
do NOT exist in reality
are abstract and generalizable
Ideal Types of Social Action
social action is overt action oriented towards the behavior of other individuals.
value rational behavior sometimes means that rational means can be used to obtain 'irrational' ends
Leeroy Jenkins
Construct an ideal type for:
chair
pants
cookbook
For Next Class
April 6: Historical Materialism and Conflict
Marx and Engels, “Manifesto of the Communist Party” in Classical.
Marx, “Wage-Labour and Capital” in Classical.
Marx, “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844” in Classical.
Review: Evaluating theory
Internal Validity
falsifiability
generalizability
concreteness
parsimony
External Validity
Propositions generated
Causal mechanisms
Objectivity
The ethic of social science
Beatlemania, 1964
West Side Story rumble, 1961
Emile Durkheim,
1858-1917
Max Weber, 1864-1920
The above can MOTIVATE action
What we want to understand better
(from Friday's free write)
What is falsifiability?
What is parsimony?
What is the difference between 'generalizability' and 'external validity'?
What are causal mechanisms?
Criteria for Evaluation
Functionalist Macro- Approach
Macro and Micro-level Approaches to Theory
Durkheim's "The Rules of Sociological Method [1895]"
social fact
"...is any way of acting whether fixed or not, capable of exerting over the individual an external constraint;
or
which is general over the whole of a given society whilst having an existence of its own, independent of its individual manifestations" (Durkheim 2012[1895]: 209-210).
Merton's "Manifest and Latent Functions [1957]"
manifest function
latent function
objectives align with the consequences of a group action
unintended function of a group action
What are the manifest and
latent functions of a funeral?
material and immaterial social facts
directly measurable,
institutionalized form
not directly measurable, exist outside the individual manifestations
Social Order
Norm breakers are punished
Anti-social behavior is curbed
Functionalist Example:
Social Order and Moral Integration
provides norms to follow
Conformity to norms is reinforced
social order is reproduced
"...society is not the mere sum of individuals, but the system formed by their association represents a specfic reality which has its own characteristics." (Durkheim 2012[1895]:215)
Assessing Prior Knowledge
60 Respondents
38% have taken an advanced sociology course
5% have never taken a social science course

93% know Marx and at least one of his ideas
52% know Durkheim and at least one of his ideas
How do Marx's starting assumptions differ from both Weber's micro-approach AND from Durkheim's macro-approach to theory?

How do Marx's theoretical concepts and relationships relate back to his starting assumptions?
Reading Questions
Which are material and which are immaterial in our US society?
Why do you think so?
blueprints for a housing development
dress code in a high school
social cliques in a high school
pick up game of basketball at Green Lake Park
Pacqui One Chip Challenge
Bring your book and/or readings notes to class on Friday for a free write.
Please remember that the 'lap top zone' is on the right hand side of the class room.
Full transcript