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Launching The New Nation
Transcript of Launching The New Nation
Strong national leader w/ great authority
Started from scratch
Economics and Politics
Federal gov. assumes the states debts.
Gives creditors reason to trust the national gov.
Southern states are furious
Hamilton and Jefferson continue to feud. grows to create two different political parties.
Federalists- Believe in a strong central government
Democratic-Republicans- Believe in a strong state government (ancestors of modern democratic party)
The French Revolution
France declares war on England.
Washington takes a stand of neutrality- supporting neither side (England or France)
Edmond Genet- French diplomat sent to gain American support, started recruiting Americans without approval
Provided for a Supreme Court made up of a Chief Justice and five associate justices.
Created 3 federal circuit courts and 13 federal district courts
Supreme Court could appeal any state courts decision
Congress creates three executive departments:
Department of State: deals with foreign affairs
Department of War: deals with military matters
Department of the Treasury: Manages finances
Becomes the Cabinet or Chief Advisers
Hamilton V. Jefferson
Strong central government
Republic led by educated elite
loose interpretation of the constitution
Economy based on merchants and manufacturing
Limited national government
Democracy of common people
Strict interpretation of the constitution
Economy based on farming
Hamilton's Economic Plan
Bank of the United States
Would tie wealthy investors to the countries welfare
Would issue paper money, handle tax receipts, and government funds.
Gained Washington's approval and enough of congress to pass
District of Columbia
Majority of southern states are furious
To appease their anger Hamilton suggest moving the capital
Capital is moved from New York City to D.C., Virginia
The Whiskey Rebellion
1789- Protective Tariff- An import tax on goods produced in Europe.
Excise Tax- tax on a products manufacture, sale, and distribution (in this case whiskey a by product of corn)
Made many frontier farmers angry and rebellious.
Hamilton called up 15,000 militiamen and marched to Pittsburgh were they were dispelled.
Jefferson resigned from the cabinet in 1793
Pinckney's Treaty of 1795
Spain made an alliance with France.
Spain feared a joint British-American action
Spain gives all land east of the Mississippi except Florida to America
Also opens trade on the Mississippi River and in New Orleans
Chief Little Turtle defeats Federal army in 1790 and 1791.
Little Turtle urged his people to seek peace upon seeing General Anthony Wayne's army.
Native American resistance collapsed, Signed Treaty of Greenville, agreeing to give up Ohio River Valley in exchange for $20,000 in goods and $10,000 cash, well undervalue.
After the victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, John Jay met with the British.
British agreed to evacuate their Northwest territory forts but refused to stop their fur trade on America's side
Adams wins presidency- Jefferson wins Vice President
Sectionalism- Placing interests of one region over the nation as a whole
XYZ Affair- 1797- Incident where the French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomats
John Adams Wins Presidency
Alien and Sedition Acts
Anti-French feeling flourish
residence requirements for citizenship went up from 5 to 14 years
President has power to deport and jail any alien considered undesirable
Anyone in attempt to hinder the government could face fines and jail time.
Nullification- A states refusal to recognize an act of congress they deem unconstitutional
1779- Washington dies from complications of a strep throat.
Improved relations with France and Napoleon Bonaparte
12th Amendment results in the electoral college voting for the President and VP on separate ballots.
Simplified the central government
John Marshall/ Supreme Court
John Marshall-Federalist, Chief Justice
Judiciary Act of 1801, increased the number of federal judges
Midnight Judges- federalist judges Adams appointed in the final hours of his presidency
Marbury V. Madison
Marbury was 1 of the midnight judges who never received his papers
Judiciary Act of 1789 required that these papers be delivered
Court concluded that the provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that allowed for this was in itself unconstitutional
The Louisiana Purchase
Spain returned territory to France
Fearing Rivalry Jefferson sought to buy the land, sent James Monroe to delegate
Napoleon sells the territory for 15 million
America doubles in size
Lewis & Clark
Jefferson sends Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore newly acquired territory
Learn of native tribes
Sacajawea- female interpreter and guide
2 years and 4 months
The War of 1812
England orders a blockade of France and captures over 1000 American ships.
British policy of impressment- practice of seizing Americans at sea and enlisting them into the Royal Navy.
1807- Chesapeake incident, 3 Americans dead
Jefferson orders an Embargo- a ban on exporting products to other countries
War Hawks- Angry congressmen called for war against Britain
James Madison wins Presidency in 1808
Madison declares war
Detroit was taken by British early in the war
American Navy shows its ability but soon get bottle necked in ports
1814- British forces raid and burn D.C. including the white house
General Andrew Jackson wins multiple battles and defeated both the Native American forces in the South and a elite British army in New Orleans
Treaty of Ghent- 1814- declared an armistice with one another or end of fighting.
Helped nations eventually regain peaceful relations