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End of WWII
Transcript of End of WWII
Crimea, Russia on Feb. 4-11, 1945
FDR, Churchill (GB), Stalin (SU) (Big Three Allied leaders) meet to talk about future progress of the war and the postwar world
GB+US: “help us fight Japan. If we win, you (SU) can have Manchuria”
R: “okay! (We were going to fight them anyways… because of that humiliation from Russo- Japanese war)”
R: “I’ll also join UN since five permanent members of the Security Council would have veto power… (we have more control in world affairs so we can weaken the UN…)” V-Day Victory in Europe Day: May 8, 1945 formal end of the war after six years, and the final end of Hitler's Third Reich.
Near The End: Before V-Day the end of WWII was already in sight as German forces had surrendered in Italy May 3rd, and in Northern Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands on May 4th. However, fighting continued right up until peace time, and even extended a few days after V-Day with German forces fighting the Red Army. Fighting continued with the U.S. battling Japan in the Pacific Japanese surrender was on August 14, 1945.
Surrender: Unconditional surrender was ordered by Karl Doenitz (took power in Germany) it was signed at General Eisenhower's headquarters on May 7, but V-Day was celebrated on the 8th. A second surrender was signed in Berlin stating all German military operations were to cease at 11:01 p.m. on May 8th. The United States and the Soviet Union already had major disagreements over capitalism vs. communism. World War II initially brought them to peace, as they both had the same goal: defeating Nazi Germany. However, following World War II, a difference in views, suspicion, and distrust led into what was known as the Cold War, which was a war more or less of ideas rather than actual physical fighting. The relations between the United States and the Soviet Union became uneasy following World War II for these reasons, offsetting the formerly in place peace between the two. United Nations Nuremberg Trials V-Day Celebration: Once news of V-Day was confirmed either through newspaper, or radio, celebrations included street parties in Britain especially London and a radio broadcast made by Winston Churchill. In the U.S., the most famous celebration took place in Times Square August 14 1945 following the surrender of Japan.
*FDR died on August 12, 1945 before the celebration of V-Day Aftermath: In Britain: half a million homes had been destroyed, along with civilian casualties due to the Blitz (German air raid, Luftwaffe) through 1940-1 and the V1 & V2 missiles.
Germany: the economy was destroyed, industrial output, and food production had greatly decreased. Over 11 million people had lost their lives to the Holocaust and violence during the war. Hyperinflation caused prices to rise about 85%, like Britain, German infastructure had greatly been destroyed due to British and American bombing. Bibliography Sheffield, Dr. Gary. "Victory In Europe Day." BBC News. BBC, 10 Apr. 2011. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. V-Day in the United States,
Times Square N.Y.C (Victory over Japan) Yalta Conference, Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin Nuremberg Trials
•Poland and Yugoslavia--> independence
•FDR thought it was successful; no tension with Russia so as he thought…
•FDR died, Trumann came but his new adm clashed with Soviets over the influence in Eastern Europe and United Nations
•Many criticized FDR: “You gave everything to Soviets at Yalta!” Henderson, David R. "German Economic Miracle." : The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty, n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2013 "The Yalta Conference (1945)." The Yalta Conference (1945). N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2013. Potsdam:
Potsdam (near Berlin), July 17- Aug 2, 1945
Truman (US), Stalin (R), Churchill, Atlee (GB) meet.
Purpose: to act on agreements made at Yalta
Two contentious issues: Poland's western boundaries with Germany and German reparations
Churchill suspicious of Stalin b/c gained too much power over East Europe
Germany pays whole reparation
treat G as one economic unit and can veto each other's decisions
authority in Germany to military commanders each respective zones Potsdam Conference Held in Nuremberg Germany in 1945-1946.
The Purpose of the trials was to prosecute Nazi war officials for war crimes during WWII.
The Trials: convicted about two dozen high up Nazi officials. Representatives from Britain, the U.S., France, and the Soviet Union were present for prosecution. Nuremberg was chosen because it had recieved the smallest amount of damage. Nuremberg Trials." Image. National Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. Nuremberg Trials Prosecution: All who were accused pleaded not guilty before the trial but eventually broke down to claim that "they had only been following orders."
Of the 22 Nazi officials accused, 12 were hanged, 8 were given prison sentences (either 10 years to life), and 2 were aquitted.
Hermann Georing: The most influential Nazi official prosecuted (before Hitler's death he was the 2nd highsest official). He remained convinced that he was right throughout the trial although his death sentence was certain. Before his sentence to be hanged he committed suicide by poisoning himself with cyanide.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner: Was chief of Reich Security Headquarters, and the Secret Police. He pleaded "not guilty" during the trial and claimed he had no knowledge of any atrocities he had committed, even when presented with documents signed by him. "Nuremberg War Trials: International Military Tribunal Constitution (1945)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 4 Jan. 2013
. US & Soviet United Nations Doenecke, Justus D. "Potsdam Conference." Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 6. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 434-435. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 4 Jan. 2013.
Feis, Herbert. (1960). Between War and Peace: The Potsdam Conference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gormly, James L. (1990). From Potsdam to the Cold War: Big Three Diplomacy, 1945–1947. Wilmington, DE: SR Books. War Crimes: Included murder or poor treatment of war prisoners, destruction of cities, and homes
Crimes Against Humanity: Murder, extermination, deportation, or enslavement on civilian population. Persecution based on political, religious, or racial views. Mueller, Gene. "Nuremberg Trials: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Jan. 2013.
"Teaching Modules." Teaching Modules. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2013. After World War I, President Wilson founded and helped to create the League of Nations, which was to be an international council to prevent further war by bringing nations together. Unfortunately it failed.
In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter.
The UN Charter was produced as a result of improvements made to the Covenant of the League of Nations. The "Big Four" became the four members of the Security Council, which was meant to strike a balance of power and prevent further conflicts. Denazification, demilitarization, democratization, and decentralization of Germany
Gave Koenigsberg and adjacent area to the Soviet Union
(prior to conference- New Mex.)July 14, Truman tells Stalin "We have perfected a very powerful explosive which we are going to use against the Japanese and we think it will end the war"
The Potsdam Declaration of 26 July 1945 signed only by US, GB, and China
"if you (Japan) don't surrender, there will be an utter devastation in Japan"--> didn't so Hiroshima, Nagasaki United Nations was set up with more political power and the ability to organize and maintain its own peacekeeper force.
The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.
The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, Soviet Union, and by a majority of other signatories.
United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year. United Nations Questions:
What were some outcomes from it?
Why was FDR criticized?
Do you think it was successful?
Why was the United Nations formed? Questions:
What were the two contentious issues?
List some results
Do you think it was successful?
Why was the United Nations formed? Hermann Georing Questions What was the overall purpose of the Nuremberg Trials?
Why was Nuremberg, Germany chosen to hold the trials?
What happened to Hermann Georing before his death sentence? Why were the United States and Soviet Union able to reach peace?
What specific incidences helped form the path for the Cold War from WWII?
Was the Cold War truly a "war?"