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Copy of Green RVM (Reverse Vending Machine)

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Chaplin Cherry

on 21 November 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Green RVM (Reverse Vending Machine)

Green RVM
(Reverse Vending Machine)

LIRA, Cristine C.
PALMA, Charles Evans P.
NERA, Joseph A.

Plastic bottles and tin cans can be found almost anywhere on Earth.
But bottled water and tin can is not considered to be healthy for the environment.
All waste materials, whether they are solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive fall within the remit of waste management.
In a bid to encourage people to stop littering and to recycle plastic bottles and tin cans, the proponents will introduce the Solar-Powered RVM (Reverse Vending Machine).

Table 1: Cabuyao Summary of Waste Generated as of 2007
Table 2: Cabuyao Waste Generation Projection
Background of the Problem
The fact that waste management has become a large problem in the world, with landfills growing to enormous sizes and recycling rates remaining dismally low.

In the City of Cabuyao, there is also a difficulty regarding waste management that is why the proponents will conduct a study regarding the issue. Based on the interview from CENRO (City Environment and Natural Resources Office), waste management office in the city, the proponents found out that as of now there is an improper disposal of used plastic bottles and aluminum cans.

Overview of the Current State of Technology
Currently, the community of Cabuyao doesn’t have this technology. What the community has until now is the manual garbage collection, meaning, all kinds of garbage (food left over, papers, plastic, etc) in one plastic bag.

Statement of the Problem
The general problem of the study is how to design and develop a device that accepts used (empty) beverage containers (plastic bottle & tin can) and returns token of appreciation to the user.

Specifically, this study attempts to answer the following questions:
How to design and develop a device that can help waste management in the city of Cabuyao?  
How to design a device that will determine if the input is plastic bottle or aluminum can?
How will the proponents use energy coming from the sun to power up the device?

Design Objectives
General Objectives

The general purpose of this study is to design and develop a device that accepts used (empty) beverage containers (plastic bottle & tin can) and returns token of appreciation to the user.

Specific Objectives
To design and develop a device that can help waste management in the city of Cabuyao.
To design a device that will determine if the item inserted by the user is plastic bottle or aluminum can.
To create a device that uses solar panel to convert solar energy to power up the device.
To create a device that has SMS feature.

Significance of the Study
The design project is beneficial to the following:

The Environment. – The design project will reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills and incinerators
The Community - The design project will help the community to develop a sense of responsibility in collecting plastic bottles and tin can and not just throw it away.  
The Proponents – The proponents as well will benefit from this design project thru additional knowledge acquisition on:
PLC programming
Solar Panel integration and power conversion
GSM integration
The Future Researchers. The study will be beneficial as reference to other researchers/students who want to continue and enhance the study.
Engineering Discipline. To apply the knowledge gained by the proponents in the Computer Engineering field.

The device is powered using solar energy during day time.
The device is powered by a battery during night time.
PLC will be used as the controller of the device.
The device can be controlled using SMS.
The device can send SMS to inform the owner of the following message:
Device has run out of coins to dispense
The bin for the bottle and can is full
The device will have an extra bin for rejected waste.
The device will alarm and send SMS for security.
The device can automatically turn on and off.
The device can segregate plastic bottle and tin can.

The Subscriber Identity Module needs to be loaded after reaching 1 month of operation.
The device operates only on a single network.
The device is only operational from 7am to 10pm.
The device will only accept command text coming from pre assigned user and with a correct password.
The device will only reply to the recipient if it has load and signal. 
The device will only accept the following plastic and thin can containers.
250 mL plastic bottle container
500mL plastic bottle container
1L plastic bottle container
1.5L plastic bottle container
Any brand of soda in can
Any brand of alcohol beverages in can

Foreign Literature
What is the Life Cycle of a Plastic Bottle?
-The life cycle of a plastic bottle starts, obviously, with the creation of the plastic used to make it.
-The plastic bottles must be sterilized so that they are safe for beverages, and then they are filled, capped, labeled, packed into cases, and prepared for shipping.
Once a plastic bottle ends up in the hands of an end-consumer, it has three possible fates after its contents have been consumed: it may be reused, recycled, or thrown away.

What is Aluminum cans?

An aluminum can, or can, is a container for packaging made primarily of aluminum (BrE aluminum).
Aluminum offers greater malleability, resulting in ease of manufacture; this gave rise to the two-piece can, where all but the top of the can is simply stamped out of a single piece of aluminum, rather than laboriously constructed from two pieces of steel.

What is Recycling?

Recycling is a process to change materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production.

How Solar Cells Work?

Photovoltaic Cells: Converting Photons to Electrons
Photovoltaic (PV) cells, which as the name implies (photo meaning "light" and voltaic meaning "electricity"), convert sunlight directly into electricity. A module is a group of cells connected electrically and packaged into a frame (more commonly known as a solar panel), which can then be grouped into larger solar arrays

Yinggang, et al, Capacitive Sensor High-Precision Measurement System Capacitive, grating sensor can be used to measure the length, as its capacitance changes with the shift difference. This sensor adopt the way of cyclical altering coupling area to measure which void defect that are small measuring range and non-linear output.

Gu, et al, A Wireless Vending Machine System Based on GSM, a wireless vending machine system based on the GSM network is developed in this paper. operating support system of wireless vending machine system is formed, which can not only integrate vending machines, USSD platform and payment system together, but also manage sale information, logistic information and consumer information on-line.

Local Literature

"Of the 728 liters of collected debris, 75.55 percent was composed of plastic discards, mostly plastic bags and polystyrene products," Ecowaste said on its blog site. "Biodegradables [are a] far second at 10.99 percent; glass, 5.77 percent; metals, 2.2 percent; hazardous waste, 1.38 percent; and rubber, .55 percent," -EcoWaste Coalition

Table 3: Waste Collected at the Manila Bay in 2006

Castillo, et al, Flood Garbage Separator presents a conceptual model of a system to prevent the clogging of drainage water and avoid spill over onto the roads by utilizing a graduated mesh based automatic solid waste separator.

Gonzales, et al, Vending Machine Telemetry System via SMS, telemetry is a technology that allows remote measurement of information of interest to the system designer or operator.

Research Methods Technique
Data Gathering Procedure
- City Environment and Natural Resource Office (CENRO)
- Technological Institute of the Philippines and Technological University of the Philippines
- consultation
- Online researching and other reference

Build Prototype System
The design project will come up to the realization of its possibility after defining and gathering data for the study. The development involves the planning of the design necessary in addressing the solution to be implemented.
Use Prototype System
The study will then be processed for implementing the solutions necessary for the materialization of the prototype.

System Adequate
The prototype will then be concerned with validation and troubleshooting as well as overall project evaluation for the satisfaction of the stated function of the device. Obtaining the feedback after the implementation will be essential for addressing the problems and enhancing the prototype.

Deliver System
After all the problems have been addressed, the device will be ready for implementation at the community of Pamantasan ng Cabuyao as dry-run of the device.

Research Design
The proponents will use the descriptive type of study about the chosen design in describing, analyzing and interpreting the established facts to draw conclusions and give solution to the problem. Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe “what exists” with respect to variables or conditions.

Locale of the Study
The study takes place at the City of Cabuyao and is intended to be donated for the City Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO), waste management office of the city of Cabuyao after a month of dry-run at the Pamantasan ng Cabuyao.

Research Instruments
- interview,
- records
- Survey
- consultation
- library

Project Management
Description of Activities

The proponents will walk around the community to observe the problems in Katapatan Homes that will serve as the concept of the design project and looked for possible thesis adviser.

In line with the study, the proponents will look for similar literature that will serve as reference.

Design Tasks
The design group conducts individual researches and consultation for the study. With the gathered information the design team formulates a concept and proposal of a design that can help the environment.

PLC Module 12/24 Remote Control is a line of micro programmable logic controllers (Micro PLC’s) that can control a variety of automation applications. The compact design, expandability, low cost and powerful instruction set of the LOGO Micro PLC make a perfect solution for controlling small applications.


PC to PLC Cable. A special cable is needed when a personal computer is used as the programming device. This cable called LOGO Cable allows the serial interface to the PLC to communicate with the RS – 232 serial interface of a computer

Solar Panel and Battery: These panels are designed to capture the sun light and produce large amounts of energy from it.
GSM module which send and receives the text message
Inductive Sensors for detecting thin can
Capacitive Proximity Sensor for detecting plastic bottles

DC Motor for dispensing the money

A software program is required in order to tell the PLC what instructions it must follow. The software used with the Logic Module to create operating programs is the Logo Soft comfort software.
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