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Transcript of Antarctica
Location of Antarctica
Antarctica is the southernmost continent and is in the southern hemisphere. It covers 14 million square kilometers of land.
longitude and latitude
The longitude and latitude is 90.0000° S, 0.0000° W
Difference between Antarctica and the Arctic
It’s a continent
No permanent human life
South of Earth
No terrestrial mammals
No tundra or tree lines
Who owns Antarctica
No one owns Antarctica because of the Antarctic treaty.
The following countries own a territory in Antarctica:
Timeline of Antarctica
The Antarctic treaty is an extraordinary and unique agreement created on October 15th 1959. The first conference was at Washington D.C. The aim of the treaty was to prevent war and to protect the environment to make a better future.
Map of Antarctica
With territorial claim and landmarks
United States of America
Papua New Guinea
There are 50 countries who are partners with the Antarctic treaty.
530 B.C - 350 B.C
The ancient Greeks came up with the idea of Antarctica and were the first. This is how the ancient Greeks got the idea of Antarctica:
It all started with Pythagorus who believed the world is round. Aristotle supported the idea and suggested the symmetry of a sphere demanded that the Earth's Northern region should balance by having a Southern region. This idea of earthly balance gave rise to the name we give the southern continent today: Antarktos, or ‘opposite Arktos, ’ the constellation in the northern sky.
In January, James Cook crosses the Antarctic circle although he didn't see any land. But he did see bits of rock on the icebergs that shows that a southern continent exist. He stated - "I make bold to declare that the world will derive no benefit from it".
Captain Thaddeus Bellingshausen a Russian naval officer from Vostok and Mirny circumnavigates the Antarctic, first to cross the Antarctic circle since Cook.
He made the first sighting of the continent, reaching 69° 21'S, 2° 14'W. He described it as an "icefield covered with small hillocks." on Jan 27th 1820.
February the 7th. 1st known landing on Antarctica is by an American sealer Captain John Davis,
In the winter of 1821, for the first time ever a party of men spent a winter in Antarctica. An officer and ten men from a British sealing ship the Lord Melville had to spend the winter on King George Island.
British whaler James Weddell discovers the sea and names it after him. Then reaches the most southerly point at that time 74° 15' S. No one else manages to penetrate the Weddell sea again for 80 years.
Three separate voyages from Britain, France and America set up the status of Antarctica after sailing along the continuous coastline.
British naval officer and scientist James Clark Ross toke two ships one called Erebus and the other called Terror to sail within 128.747 52 km (8o miles) of the Antarctica's coast but stopped by a massive barrier made of ice (the barrier that was blocked James Clark Ross is now known as the Ross Ice shelf which is named after him). He also discovered the active volcano called Erebus named after one of his two ships. Finds 145 new species of fish.
On March, Adrien de Gerlache and the crew of the Belgica became trapped in pack ice off the Antarctic Peninsula in the first ever scientific journey to the continent. Plus they were the first to ever to survive the Antarctic winter as their ship drifts with ice.
Carsten Borchhrevink led a british expedition that landed men at Cape Adare and built huts. This the first time that someone has ever wintered on Antarctica.
From America, Richard E. Byrd and three others were the first to fly over the South Pole.
Captain Scott, UK, led his first Antarctic expedition to try to reach the south pole, with Ernest Shackleton and Edward Wilson. They were forced to turn back two months later. They only reached 82 degrees south and they suffered from snow blindness and scurvy.
Shackleton leads an voyage to with 156km of the south pole but turns back after supplies was completely used.
On January, Australian Douglas Mawson reached the Magnetic south pole.
January 18th, Britain's Robert Falcon Scott reaches the South Pole but he discovers that he was beaten by Amundsen. The five man team including Scott, Bowers, Evans, Oates and Wilson perished on their return journey only 11 miles from the supply depot. Their bodies were not discovered until November.
On December, Douglas Mawson begins his trek across George V Land back at his base at Commonwealth bay. His two companions died and against the troubles he make it home. A new section of the coast is discovered and described as well radio used in Antarctica for the first time.
October, Shackleton returns to Antarctica in an attempt to complete the first crossing of the continent. The attempted of the crossing was not a success but became on of the greatest adventures of all time. Their voyage was most known about the endurance.
The starting of a large-scale factory ship whaling the Ross
Australian Sir George Wilkins and Ammerican Carl Benjiamin Eielson are the first people to fly over Antarctica around the Peninsula.
From America, Richard E. Byrd and three others were the first to fly over the South Pole.
Caroline Mikkelsen from Norway is the first woman to set foot on Antarctica.
Operation Highjump (America) sends the largest ever expedition with over 4700 men, 13 ships and 23 airplanes to Antarctica.
US aircraft lands at South Pole. First people there since Scott and his team in 1912.
The IGY (International Geophysical Year) 12 nations made over 60 stations in Antarctica. The start of international cooperation in Antarctica and the begining of the process by which Antarctica becomes "non-national".
Antarctic treaty came in effect.
Boerge Ousland (Norway) becomes first person to cross Antarctica with no physical support .
International Polar Year
Antarctic Dragon Fish
Antarctic dragon is a fish that is little known about them. The scientific name is Parachaenichthys charcoti and it belongs to the Bathydraconidae family.
The Antarctic dragon fish is not really an appealing fish to look at unlike the leafy seadragon.
Antarctic dragon fish
Information about Antarctic dragon fish is mostly unknown.
The average size is 20cm long and weighs in estimate under 75g. It's body is quite slim with a short mouth like a crocodile's. the eyes are white and it's pupil is black. The scales are grey and brown in colour and a fin in a shape like a humpbacks flipper.
They are deep water fish so live in depths of 600 to 8100 m.
Their found in the Southern Ocean at Scotia Sea islands.
Location of where Antarctic dragonfish are found
This is a video showing what Antarctic dragon fish looks like when it is in it's egg. This was viewed by using a microscope
The Antarctic dragonfish feeds on other fish and mysid.
Antarctic dragonfish's biggest threat (as well as other fishes that live in the Antarctic oceans) is climate change.
(Triassic period) 200 milion years ago, Atarctica was once part of a super continent call Gondwana.
You maybe wondering why Antarctica is really different from now. The reason for this is the tectonic plates. Every year tectonic plates shifted about 2.5 cm in average.
Antarctica is described as the coldest, windiest and driest place on Earth. The average annual temperature is -10°C and the lowest ever record of Antarctica's temperature is −89.2°C at Vostok station on 21 July 1983. Wind speeds can exceed to 100 km/h for days at a time and wind gusts well over 200 km/h have been measured.
Years before when Antarctica was just discovered the first explorations main reason was to create maps but now a days it is for scientific research such as:
Aeronomy: This is the study of chemicals in the earth’s atmosphere above 30km.
Astrophysics: Antarctica is the best place to study the stars. The south pole astronomy station called Amundsen-Scott is used for research into how the universe was created.
Biology: Studies of animals and life.
Geology: Research has been carried out to determine that Antarctica was once part of a large landmass that joined several other continents.
Meteorology: The weather on Antarctica has an influence on the global weather.
Glaciology: researchers study the formation of ice and the movements of floating icebergs.
Oceanography: Scientist study the movement of water currents around Antarctica and the temperatures of the different water masses that circle the continent.
What it looks like when you are in an antarctic blizzard.
Tourism in Antarctica has rapidly increased over the past few decades with over 10 000 tourist each year.
Now can you visit Antarctica well you can!
The cheapest way to get to Antarctica is to fly to Ushuaia which is in southern Argentina and sail to Antarctica.
It cost AUD $5 600 to of $20 000 for each person but the price depends on how long your visit is and the quality of your accommodation.
There has been problems over the past years and in the future of environmental impact of tourism such as:
The spread of future disease that will effect animals such as Weddell seals.
A ship called Bahia Paraiso that sank and leaked several hundred thousand litres of fuel.
Leaving rubbish and sewage to the sea.
Environmental impact of tourism
Myths on Antarctica
So people think that Atlantis is in Antarctica.
People in Japan rumored that there is some kind of gigantic humanoid.
New York city moves to London about 2.54 cm each year.
Australia moves to Asia about 7.62 cm each year.
An ancient civilization beneath Antarctica?
Eight explorers from America and Europe claim to have found evidence of three man made pyramids 'peaking' through the melting ice. Although not much information about their evidence has been released.
In 'The Myth of the Twelve World Pyramids' author James Donahue explained the legend in March, 2006:
"...The first, he said, is located under the ice in Antarctica. The others are in Tibet, Lumeria (a legendary lost continent in the Pacific region), Atlantis, Mexico, Peru, Europe, Australia, Canada,Middle East, United States and finally Egypt.
“These entities came to the planet in great spaceships and interacted with those who lived on the planet, in the water, and below the surface,” the messenger says.
The kicker comes with this: “And when this book is found, the ice shall melt from this place, revealing starships created by this pyramid, left behind as reminders of their work and interaction on your planet.”
That the book is known is a clear indication that if it is ancient, it has indeed been “found.”
Ocean surrounded by continents
Record of permanent human life
North of Earth
Tundra and tree lines
What you should wear in Antarctica
This is the clothing you should be wearing to Antarctica.
The main reason for wearing these special clothing is since the climate is so harsh you must wear special clothing to protect your body. Without these clothing you will die in the cold just like the british explorers who tried to beat the norwegians in a race to the south pole! Unfortunately they died during the race.
Let's check out what the British explorers were wearing in the race and so why they died.