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School Trauma and the Counselors Role

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Lauren Allen

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of School Trauma and the Counselors Role

Trauma and the Counselors Role
Lauren Allen


What is Trauma?
A serious injury or shock to the body, as from violence or an accident that can include the direct experience of abuse (sexual/physical), grief, domestic and/or community violence, natural disasters, etc.
Obstacles for Counseling
Some think that others are worse off
Pride/weakness
Seek help from family/friends
Absenteeism
Characteristics of a Safe and Responsive School
Focus on academic achievement
Involve the family
Emphasize positive relationships between student and staff
Discuss safety issues openly
Have ways for students to share concerns
Possible Reactions to Trauma
What to look for in students
both at school and at home
following a trauma
What Can Be Done to Help?
Guidelines for Teachers and Counselors
Different Interventions
Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools
Self-Care
"There is a cost to caring" -Charles Figley
Natural Disasters
0-5 years old
crying
excessive clinging
regressive behaviors (e.g., thumb sucking, bed wetting, loss of bladder/bowel control, fear of darkness or animals, fear of being left alone, fear of crowds or strangers, inability to dress or eat without assistance)
sleep terrors/nightmares
irritability
confusion
sadness
eating problems
reenactment via play
6-11 years old
regressive behaviors (bed wetting, excessive clinging, irrational fears)
sleep terrors/nightmares/sleep problems
irritability
aggressiveness
disobedience
depression
somatic complaints and visual or hearing problems
school problems (e.g., school refusal, behavior problems, poor school performance, fighting, concentration problems, distractibility)
withdrawal/lack of interest
peer problems
increased conflict with siblings.
12-17 years old
withdrawal
isolation
somatic complaints (e.g., nausea, headaches, chills)
depression/sadness
agitation or decreased energy level
antisocial behavior
poor school performance
sleep and/or eating disturbance
irresponsibility/risky behavior including alcohol and other drug use
decreased interest in social activities
conflict with parents
concentration problems
Elementary
Reinforce ideas of safety and security
Maintain consistent schedule
Listen to the students
Encourage discussion
Validate feelings but keep from generalizing
Respond to questions calmly and simply
Avoid terms that "soften"
Help form realistic understanding of the event
Remember some students need to hear things more than once
Expect angry outbursts
Expect brief decline in student academic performance
Avoid re-exposure/reminders of the trauma
Maintain open communication with other staff
Remain aware of own reactions/feelings
Middle /High
Reinforce ideas of safety/security
Listen to the students
Encourage discussion
Validate feelings but keep from generalizing
Respond to questions calmly and simply
Avoid terms that "soften"
Help form realistic understanding of the event
Remember some students need to hear things more than once
Expect brief decline in student academic performance
Avoid re-exposure/reminders of the trauma
Maintain open communication with other staff
Remain aware of own reactions/feelings
3 R's of School Crisis
Readiness
Response
Recover
S.T.A.G.E.S.
Support Trauma and Grief-Enabling Schools
TF-CBT
QUIZ!!
Websites
http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/handouts-pdf/Reactions.pdf
http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/fslist-continuing-education.asp
http://rems.ed.gov/docs/NCTSN_ChildTraumaToolkitForEducators.pdf
http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr369.shtml
References
Gurwitch, R. H., Silovsky, J. F., Schultz, S., Kees, M., & Burlingame, S. (2002). Reactions and guidelines for children following trauma/disaster. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 93-99.
Kira, I., Lewandowski, L., Somers, C. L., Yoon, J. S., & Chiodo, L. (2012). The effects of trauma types, cumulative trauma, and ptsd on iq in two highly traumatized adolescent groups. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 128-139.
Klingman, A. (1987). A school-based emergency crisis intervention in a mass school disaster. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 604-612.
Layne, C. M., Ippen, C. G., Strand, V., Stuber, M., Abramovitz, R., Reyes, G., . . . Pynoos, R. (2011). The core curriculum on childhood trauma: A tool for training a trauma-informed workforce. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 243-252.
Little, S. G., Akin-Little, A., & Gutierrez, G. (2009). Children and traumatic events: Therapeutic techniques for psychologists working in the schools. Psychology in the Schools, 199-205.
Nadeem, E., Jaycox, L. H., Kataoka, S. H., Langley, A. K., & Stein, B. D. (2011). Going to scale: Experiences implementing a school-based trauma intervention. School of Psychology Review, 549-568.
Waghorn, A. (2012). School-based intervention supporting pupils affected by trauma, bereavement and loss: STAGES (support, trauma and grief-enabling schools). Education and health, 99-102.


School Shootings
More than 68% of adolescents will experience a traumatic event by the age of 16
In the U.S. children ranging from 12-17 years old:
17% reported physical assault
39% had witnessed a violent act
8% reported being sexually assaulted
Statistics
Gurwitch, R. H., Silovsky, J. F., Schultz, S., Kees, M., & Burlingame, S. (2002).
Reactions and guidelines for children following trauma/disaster.
Communication Disorders Quarterly, 93-99.


SAMHSA. (2013). Facts and Figures. Retrieved from The National Child Traumatic Stress Network: http://www.nctsn.org/resources/topics/facts-and-figures
Factors that Facilitate Positive Outcomes
Recognize strengths and suffering
Information and education for an understanding of the event
Sharing experiences
Maintain support networks
Initial Mental Health Interventions
Protect
Direct
Connect
Trauma Facts
Trauma can impact academic performance
Trauma can impair learning
Trauma can cause physical and emotional distress
Worry Necklace
Activity!
(elementary students)
Don't go it alone
Recognize compassion fatigue
Seek help with own trauma
Attend to self-care
First Phase- Consult with school/community, train employees
Second Phase- Counselor calls home
Third Phase- Staff creates BSP, sessions take places, consider outside resources
Results
Improved attendance-10%
Reduced anger responses
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
6 values-component based, respect, adaptability, family involvement, therapeutic relationship as key factor in recovery, and self-efficacy
Short-term treatment
Main components
Initially was used for sexually abused children but studies show that it is efficacious for other forms of trauma as well as multiply traumatized students
CBITS
A program delivered by existing school staff
Conducted during a class period
Can provide to a large number of students
User-friendly materials
Can be used with a socioeconomically, ethnically/racially, and linguistically diverse student body
Full transcript