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Learners with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Shannon Murrayon 25 September 2012
Transcript of Learners with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Average weight and height less than
their peers at the same age.
Disabled movement and balance. Characteristics Physical: Mental: Less than average I.Q.
Underdeveloped speech and language
Poor memory, attention, perception, imagination, thinking, computing, and concentration. Social: Underdeveloped ability of social adjustment
Lack of interests and orientations.
Low self- esteem Emotional Emotional imbalance
Evidence of premature or late reactions.
Primitive reactions Examples of Intellectual Disabilities Down Syndrome Most common form of intellectual disabilities.
Caused by an abnormality in the 21st chromosome, which involves a triplet rather than a pair of chromosomes.
Physical Signs: slanted- appearing eyes, hypotonia, single palmar crease, shortness, and a tendency toward obesity.
Weaknesses: receptive and expressive language, expressing facial emotions, cognitive skills become worse over time, and early onset Alzheimers.
Strengths: Visual and spatial skills and short-term memory. Fragile X Syndrome Prader- Willi Syndrome Caused by the absence of information on the seventh pair of chromosomes.
Can occur without any prior medical history of the disability in the family. However, it can be passed on.
Characteristics: elf- like facial features, over sensitivity to sounds, and heart defects.
Weaknesses: fine- motor skills, visual and spatial awareness, anxieties, fears, phobias, social skills, and over friendliness.
Strengths: expressive vocabulary, short- term memory, imitation of emotions, facial recognition, memory, and musically skilled. Williams Syndrome Most common known hereditary cause of intellectual disabilities.
Second most common intellectual disability.
The X chromosome in the 23rd pair of chromosomes is pinched off at the bottom.
Physical signs: large head, flat ears, narrow face, prominent forehead, broad nose, square chin, large testicles, and large hands.
Weaknesses: short- term memory, sequential processing, repetitive speech, reading, social anxiety, and withdrawal.
Strengths: expressive vocabulary, long- term memory and adaptive behavior. Inherited from father.
Caused from a lack of genetic information on the 15th pair of chromosomes.
Has two phases:
1) Infants are lethargic and have eating difficulties.
2) At age one, the child becomes obsessed with food.
Health problems: obesity, shortness due to deficiency of growth hormones, heart defects, daytime drowsiness, sleep apnea, and scoliosis.
Weaknesses: infant feeding difficulty, auditory issues, obsessive- compulsive behaviors.
Strengths: high IQ, visually strong, jigsaw puzzles. Resources Available to Teachers http://www.thearc.org/ AAIDD Our- Kids This website gives a resource called Students With Intellectual Disabilities: A Resource Guide for Teachers. This guide gives a variety of tools that teachers can use if they have students with intellectual disabilities. Some of these tools include ways to adapt the curriculum, teaching strategies, adapting materials, ways different people can assist children with intellectual disabilities in the classroom, and how to assess a child's knowledge of the material. Prelude Music Therapy http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/sid/21.htm Teaching Strategies - Nine Types of Adaptations http://specialchildren.about.com/od/mentalretardation/a/MRschool.htm Supporting Students with Learning Disabilities: A Guide for Teachers Placement for Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Functional Academics: Blending together academics and functional skill by using academics in the context of life skills. (Use real life settings and materials)
A lesser degree of disability = a stronger focus is on academics.
A stronger degree of disability = a stronger focus on life skills
Systematic Instruction: the practice of using instructional prompts, consequences for performance, and strategies for the transfer of stimulus control. (Positive reinforcement) Educational
Considerations The Arc is an organization that advocates the rights for and serves people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. They work to ensure that every family with a member who has an intellectual/ developmental disability are able to be active members of society Known now as the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD), but was once called the American Association on Mental Retardation. This organization provides support for those with intellectual and developmental disabilities. It is the oldest and largest organization with members whose sole purpose is to increase the quality of life and rights for those with intellectual and developmental disabilities. National Down Syndrome Society This society is known as the national advocate for people with Down Syndrome. They want to promote the value, acceptance, and inclusion of people with Down Syndrome. This society's overall goal is to help support those with Down Syndrome to be able to be able to live their lives and to be accepted in society as who they are, rather than just for their disability. A website foundation that includes parents, families, and caregivers who work with children with a range of disabilities, including intellectual disabilities. Children of all ages are welcome into this society. The site includes actual stories from parents whose children benefited from this organization.
Website: http://www.our-kids.org/ Prelude music therapy is used solely for the support for those with disabilities. They use music therapy to help those with mental disabilities achieve academic goals outside of music. They use to help improve cognitive, physical, social, communication, and emotional skills. This is an article that describes different strategies on how to adapt to students with intellectual disabilities in the classroom. These strategies include how much information you give to the student, how much time you give the student to work on an assignment, how to determine the difficulty level of a lesson, and what material should be left for a substitute to ensure that the student is receiving the correct information on their personal level. This is a book that gives information to teachers on how to teach and also support their students with intellectual disabilities. This guide also gives information about how to determine if a child has an intellectual disability, how to use different teaching strategies that will be most effective towards the students, and how to provide support for the students. The title of this website is Preparing the School for Your Child with Intellectual Disabilities, and it discusses how teachers can help support the students in the classroom. This website includes different printouts for teachers to help with discovering ways to teach content to intellectually disabled students. It also includes five steps to help educate teachers on how parents want their children to be handled in the classroom. These steps include ways of teaching the students and how to create a positive relationship with the students. Project Ideal Provides information about and how to provide instruction to students with intellectual disabilities. It also discusses different organizations that provide support to people with intellectual disabilities. Voice of the Retarded This organization provides care and support for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. They also provide residential options and services for those with intellectual disabilities. This group also advocates for them in different legal situations, including residential disputes and guardianship issues. Before the 1970's most disabled children were educated at home and kept back within the community. Now, after the development of IDEA, all children have the right to a free and appropriate education. However.... The Placement of children with these disabilities can still be a difficult task. Because no two children are exactly alike and all with have different types and degrees of assistance. The Numbers Surveys show that around 90% of school age children with disabilities are taught in regular schools. 3% in schools specifically for the disabled. 1% in private schools and less than 1% are either home-bound, hospitalized, or in a residential facility.
Developmental delays: 98% are in inclusive classroom, where 60% of those students spend the majority of the day within the classroom.
Learning disabilities: 98% - 63%
Intellectual disabilities: 91% are in an inclusive classroom with half the students spending less than 40% of the time in the class.
http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=59 Assessment of Progress Early Intervention Outside Education: The Transition into Adulthood Self Determination: The ability to be self regulated, act in a self realized manner, and act autonomously.
This is a major goal of transition programming
Article: "Students with Intellectual Disabilities Going to College? Absolutely!" Community Adjustment
Community Residential Facilities: A type of small group home where the disabled live under the guidance of 'house parents. This placement can be temporary or permanent. They are also used to teach independent living skills
Supported Living: Living in a more natural environment (such as a home, condo, or apartment) while receiving extra support. This type of living can lead to a higher level of self-determination. Employment: Adults with disabilities have a high level of unemployment. The current rate of employment for the disabled is about 34% (disabilitystatistics.org)
Sheltered Workshops: Person receives training and work in a structured environment, usually with other disabled workers.
Supported Competitive Employment: Work in a typical environment where most the employees are not disabled. The person with the disability will receive assistance from a job coach.
Customized and Self-employment: Finding employment based on the person's strengths and weaknesses. The U.S. government and state governments all have resources and information available to people with disabilities and their families.
https://www.disability.gov/ When assessing students with disabilities, educators focus on a variety of domains. This may include curriculum based measurements, quality of life, and assessments of adaptive behavior.
Adaptive behavior: uses the Vineland Adaptive Behavior scale. Mostly through observation
Quality of life: Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Life Experiences Checklist.
Assessment accommodations can also be made for students with disabilities. This may include scheduling, formatting, response, or alternative assessments Early Intervention is often vital in the development and progress of children with disabilities.
ECE for Prevention: Head Start
ECE for Further Development: Speech, OT, PT
Article: "The Response to Intervention Approach in Early Childhood" Classification of Intellectual Disabilities
Mild: IQ 50-70
Moderate: IQ 35-50
Severe: IQ 20-35
Profound: IQ below 20