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Exercise and Aging

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Jessica Lobe

on 20 October 2014

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Transcript of Exercise and Aging

Aging and Exercise
Getting Practical
What this could look like for you...
Key Message:
Aging can make it more difficult to maintain your independence and health,
BUT only if you let it!

Keeping active by exercising regularly is one of the best ways to keep your body and mind in shape, help maintain your independence and promote an improved quality of life.
Normal Aging
Effects of Exercise
Getting Practical
Muscles + Joints
- decreased muscle mass

decreased strength and endurance
strength declines 15% per decade after age 50

Heart + Lungs
- decreased heart rate, stiffer blood vessels

- increased stiffness of chest wall and
decreased gas exchange surface area

- decreased aerobic capacity
declines by 10% per decade
- decreased metabolic rate
increased body fat

- decreased ratio of "healthy" cholesterol
- decreased motor control and coordination

- less efficient memory (encoding, storage,
Normal Aging
Aging looks different for different people, but there are some changes that commonly occur. Many different systems and tissues can be affected.
What is stopping you from being active everyday?
Effects of Exercise
What is exercise?
- planned, structured, repetitive movement

- to maintain fitness, performance or health
Types of Exercise
- Resistance Training

- Aerobic Training

- Flexibility

- Balance
How exercise benefits your body
decreased risk of osteoporosis and resultant fragility fractures and decreased arthritic symptoms

counteracts muscle loss

decreased CV disease risk, lower blood pressure in those with HTN, improved cholesterol (lower LDL and raise HDL)
Exercise improves Health Related Quality of Life
prevention and management of diabetes, improved body composition (less abdominal fat and more lean body mass), increased metabolic rate at rest

depression, stress and anxiety
mood, social integration and
cognitive function

decreased cancer and stroke risk
Breaking Barriers
HRQOL is not just the absence of disease but a positive state of physical, mental and social well being. (WHO, 1947)
Aging norms
Lack of time
Lack of enjoyment
Kirkendall DT1, Garrett WE Jr. The effects of aging and training on skeletal muscle. Am J Sports Med. 1998 Jul-Aug; 26(4):598-602.

Williams, K., & Kemper, S. (2010). Interventions to reduce cognitive decline in aging. Journal Of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 48(5), 42-51. doi:10.3928/02793695-20100331-03

Patrick N. Siparsky, Donald T. Kirkendall and William E. Garrett, Jr
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach 2014 6: 36 originally published online 30 August 2013 DOI: 10.1177/1941738113502296

Chodzko-Zajko, W., Proctor, D., Fiatarone Singh, M., Minson, C., Nigg, C., Salem, G., & Skinner, J. (2009). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise, 41(7), 1510-1530. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a0c95c

Singh, M. (2002). Exercise comes of age: rationale and recommendations for a geriatric exercise prescription. The Journals Of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences And Medical Sciences, 57(5), M262-M282.

Alberta Centre for Active Living. (2014). Benefits of physical activity. In
Resources, Alberta Centre for Active Living
from http://www.centre4activeliving.ca/media/filer_public/05/b2/05b21d3b-bebb-46ae-96cd-24b2334a5bca/nwt-e-benefits.pdf.

National Institute of Aging. (2013). Exercise and physical activity: Your everyday guide. In
Go 4 Life
. Retrieved May 24, 2014 from http://www.nia.nih.gov/sites/default/files/nia_exercise_and_physical_activity.pdf.

Benefits of Physical Activity. (2013). In
Get Moving
. Retrieved May 24, 2014 from http://www.participaction.com/get-moving/benefits-of-physical-activity.

- decreased bone mass and bone density (can lead to osteoporosis)

- increased risk of fracture
Why does this matter?
Slow, gradual changes over time can accumulate and lead to:

- decreased independence and functionality
- increased risk of developing chronic conditions
- increased risk of falls/injury

Who has osteoporosis?
Who is older?
Challenge them
Back-up plan
Exercise is medicine
Switch it up
150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week.
Train each major muscle group two or three days each week using a variety of exercises and equipment.
Flexibility exercises at least two or three days each week to improve range of motion.
Balance exercise two or three days per week.
- decreased flexibility of muscle, ligaments and tendons
image from http://www.thepapertiger.com/blog/tag/document-management/
image from http://andreluisvicentini.wordpress.com/
image from http://www.mymed.ro/cordul-pulmonar-cronic.html
Increased effort to complete everyday tasks
Decreased participation in strenuous activities
- Make a set of goals
- Keep a log of your activity
- Brainstorm ways to build in activity
- Start small and progress with improvement
- Listen to your body
- Plan for breaks and changes in plans
- Measure your progress
- Try something new
- Stay Positive and Have Fun!
What are "lifestyle" exercises you can do?

References con't
Armstrong, L. (2006). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription/American College of. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.

Evans, W. J. (1999). Exercise training guidelines for the elderly. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(1), 12.

Fahey, T. D., Insel, P. M., & Roth, W. T. (2009). Fit & well. McGraw Hill.

Garber, C. E., Blissmer, B., Deschenes, M. R., Franklin, B. A., Lamonte, M. J., Lee, I. M., ... & Swain, D. P. (2011). American College of Sports Medicine American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 43(7), 1334-59.

Howley, E. T., & Thompson, D. L. (Eds.). (2012). Fitness professional's handbook. Human Kinetics.

Lox, C. L., Martin, K. A., Petruzello, S. J., Lox, C., & Martin, K. (2004). The Psychology of Exercise: Integrating Theory and Practice. Sport Psychologist,18, 231-232.

Mazzeo, R. S., & Tanaka, H. (2001). Exercise prescription for the elderly.Sports Medicine, 31(11), 809-818.

McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2010). Exercise physiology: Nutrition, energy, and human performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Nied, R. J., & Franklin, B. (2002). Promoting and prescribing exercise for the elderly. American Family Physician, 65(3), 419-426.

Nieman, D. C. (1999). Exercise testing and prescription: a health-related approach. Mayfield Pub..

Wurm, S., Tomasik, M. J., & Tesch-Römer, C. (2010). On the importance of a positive view on ageing for physical exercise among middle-aged and older adults: Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. Psychology and Health, 25(1), 25-42.
What goals could you set for this week?
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