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In the Dark Shadows--Trafficking in Women and Children in China

History 206 Presentation
by

Iris Mo

on 17 May 2013

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Transcript of In the Dark Shadows--Trafficking in Women and Children in China

In The Dark Shadows
—Trafficking in Women and Children In China What Is Human Trafficking? Human trafficking is the trade in humans, including sex trafficking, forced labor and children trafficking The profit earned in human trafficking in China is more than $7 billion annually, more than arms trafficking or drug trafficking.
In 2010, the Ministry of Public Security officially reported that there were 5,900 cases of child trafficking in China in 2010.
Between 2009 and 2012, state media in China reported that 18,000 children and 34,000 women have been freed from human traffickers.
Between 2009 and July 2011, the criminal justice system in China handled over 39,000 cases of human trafficking, involving over 14,000 women and over 8,700 children, according to state media. What are the contributing factors? Mao's Period: 1949 -1978 Cultural & Historical
Political
Legal
Economic Cultural & Historical
Political
Legal
Economic "Woman's greatest duty is to produce a son"

"There are three unfilial acts——the greatest of these is the failure to produce sons" Daughters are like water that splashes out of the family and cannot be gotten back after marriage——Traditional Chinese slang Cultural & Historical
Political
Legal
Economic Cultural & Historical
Political
Legal
Economic Cultural & Historical
Political
Legal
Economic A domino effect of dire social problems Suggestions for Further
Actions & Improvements More funding to the local and regional government
More transparency
More legal protection of women and children
Further cooperation with the local NGOs Unregulated Abortion
Forced abortion and self-selective abortion
No national-level law against sex-selection abortion
No cultural stigma against abortion
Lack of sex education More than 336 million abortions have been performed since the enforcement of OCP in 1971; 13 million abortion/year, 35,000 abortions/day on average, approximately 1,500 abortions/hour The profit earned in human trafficking in China is more than $7 billion annually, more than arms trafficking or drug trafficking.
In 2010, the Ministry of Public Security officially reported that there were 5,900 cases of child trafficking in China in 2010.
Between 2009 and 2012, state media in China reported that 18,000 children and 34,000 women have been freed from human traffickers.
Between 2009 and July 2011, the criminal justice system in China handled over 39,000 cases of human trafficking, involving over 14,000 women and over 8,700 children, according to state media. Higher Crime Rates? OCP was Launched in 1979.
Pervasive political propaganda on OCP, including numerous ads, billboards, books, cartoons, paintings, plays, different medias, etc. China has a trafficking law but it is not well enforced
In 1992, the Law on the Protection of Women's Rights and Interests was passed (LPWRI), which was the 1st basic law to protect women’s rights and interests in China. The LPWRI also fails to provide a definition of discrimination against women. Although it prohibits kidnapping, trafficking and buying women, it fails to prescribe any specific penalties for these offenses.
In the Southern border provinces, local authorities rely heavily upon NGOs to identify trafficking victims and to provide victim protection services since the local governments lack significant resources and funding
Authorities fail to distinguish between a trafficked woman that was forced to prostitute and a voluntary prostitute. The government treats the victims of trafficking as mere criminals. The trafficking victims are either thrown in jail for engaging in illegal prostitution or get deported back to their home countries, where they are forced to live as social outcasts in horrific conditions (e.g.: North Korean trafficking victims are treated solely as illegal economic migrants, and a few hundred of them are deported/month to North Korea where they may face severe penalties)
Trafficked women face discrimination from their own families and communities upon their release and return home The term was coined by American feminist Mary Anne Warren
Between 1990 and 2000, 5.9 million girls went missing, with the increased first and second birth sex ratio responsible for 97% of those girls.
Chinese girls are twice as likely to die in their first year of life as boys.
The death rate of girls in their first year of life is up to 3 times higher in rural areas than in urban areas.
The risk of death is 3 times higher for second girls than first girls.
95% of abandoned children in rural areas live outside of state-controlled orphanages. Between 1986 and 2005, only Tibet and Xinjiang had sex ratios within normal limits across the age range. These two provinces are largely inhabited by minority ethnic groups and have more lenient family planning laws.
Within two decades, more than ten provinces in China have severe imbalanced gender ratio, mainly clustering in central and southern China. $4,732 (30,000¥) $7,887 (50,000¥) Higher Crime Rates Perhaps? Implications from Previous Research:
It was found that sex ratios and crime rate were connected, with just a one percent increase in sex ratio leading to a five percent increase in crime rate
High male sex ratios can lead to more authoritarian forms of government in an effort to crack down on crime
There is a correlation between increased sex ratios and increased bride abduction, trafficking of women, rape and prostitution
Unmarried young males between 24-35 are also found to be 3 times more likely to murder than their married counterparts—the rootless rascals
China’s crime rate has nearly doubled in the last 20 years. Incidents of social unrest have risen from about 40,000 in 2001 to over 90,000 in 2009.
Male youth bulge problem—German scholar Gunnar Heinsohn
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