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Transcript of Ipads
The online tool will enable principles to create professional profiles,connect and share with other principals, blog, run web discussions, create publishing spaces, communicate via video conferencing and create work sequences and databases of team resources.
A digital backpack will also be used as a performance management tool,providing evidence of learner progress through ongoing self assessment, reflection on individual strengths and weaknesses, recognition of gaps in knowledge and competencies and identification of future direction and learning.
DEEWR (no date d) Leading ICT Learning in Technology Enabled Schools Melbourne Deceleration on the Educational Goals for Young Australians Through the harnessing of ICT, students can learn to use technology for educational purposes as well as personal and social motivations.
In a research article published by DEECD in 2009, Dr Maureen O' Rourke defines the following contributing factors as leading to quality Teaching with ICT
*curriculum designs that include relevance to students, worthy understanding goals, emphasis on rigour and meta cognition, authentic application of new knowledge and skills
* Focus on human puposes (pulishing, creating, communicating, collaborating, designing, researching, thinking and analysing) rather than technical proficiency in ICT
* Values and beliefs about how students best learn and the role of the teachers (with best results when teachers viewed learning as a partnership, valued students learning hot to learn and created opportunities for student voice and agency
* A repetoire of teaching strategies that effectively address both what and how students would learn
*A contemporary view of literacy embracing multimodality and multiliteracies as a foundation for using digital technologies
*Systematic teacher research, documentation and reflection on evidence of student learning
* Balanced consideration of progress towards both 'high bar' educational goals such as those of the Melbourne Decleration and 'low bar' enablers or foundatios such as expected standards
O'Rourke (2009) The role of schools (
Quality teaching is (as has been found in other studies) the factor which enables the iPad to be used effectively to improve student motivation, engagement and learning outcomes.
‘Learning will only be 24-7 if what students are learning is intriguing and engaging. Curriculum drives 24-7 learning, not the device.’ (DEECD 2010c).
Thompson (2002) refers to Thanh's teacher who cannot find the and space in her busy and crowded classroom to organise alternative learning activities for him- and all of the "other individual students with their particular schoolbags, their unique interests and knowledge."
This is a sentiment echoed by many educators who feel that there is limited space in such a crowded to curriculum to invest precious time in devices such as the iPad.
Conole et al (2008) counteract this argument by stating ‘Technology is not simply an add on, it is central to how the students organise and oriented their learning lives by providing alternative routes to engagement, responsive and immediate modes of interaction and communication and flexibility’ Therefore it is essential that educators see technology as an essential integrated component of teaching and learning rather than a stand alone entity.
"Teachers must also have a repertoire of pedagogical practices that will connect children to the knowledges that count through work with the individual and collective resources that the children bring with them." Dyson (as cited in Thompson, 2002)
DEECD has collated these teaching practices
and capacities of 21st century educators in article
Transforming the Learning Experience. Student Centred Learning Approaches
Fullan and Hargreaves (as cited in DEECD, 2009b) argue 'It is what teachers think, what teachers do, and what teachers are, at the level of the classroom that ultimately shapes the kind of learning young people get'
The outcomes of students are directly related to the skills, understandings and practices possessed by the teacher.
It is therefore essential that teacher capacity in ICT is built in order to act as a motivator and have a flow on effect into classrooms and ultimately student learning.‘New capacities build motivation because they generate clarity, skills and success. Stannard & Huxford (as cited in Levin & Fullan, 2008)
Capacity building is defined as any strategy that increases the collective effectiveness of a group to raise the bar and close the gap of student learning. For us it involves helping to develop individual and collective (1) knowledge and competencies (2) resources and (3) motivation. These capacities are specifically about getting results.(Levin & Fullan, 2008)
As a result of immersion in technology in the iPads in schools trial 67% of teachers felt that use of the iPad had improved their effectiveness as teachers, and 75% were using ICT more effectively in teaching and learning. In research article Visible learning: what's good for the goose.. Hattie identifies this as the importance of 'visible teaching' and 'visible learning' in which his research
suggests "the biggest effects on student learning occur
when teachers become learners of their own teaching'.
"The shift isn't in the students.
The shift is in the teachers.
We don't have to convince students that
this (technology) is the way to learn.'
Downes & Bishop (2012) What does it mean for educators? PLANE aims to provide accredited or informal anytime, anywhere profession learning for educators. It is a free professional learning tool for all Australian educators.
'Plane endeavors to promote best practice in professional learning that will build digital literacy and 21st Century learning skills thus increasing confidence in educators to teach with technology.'
Through 2 integrated learning environments PLANE aims cater to educator learning needs through online learning experiences. Learning experiences include access to self evaluation,resources, coaches and experts, opportunities to communicate with others through social networking sites, simulated walks and project collaboration. DEEWR (no date c) Pathways for Learning Anywhere Anytime; A Network for Educators (PLANE)
In 2010 Minister for School Education, Early Childhood and Youth Peter Garrett announced that more than $16 million would be received in federal funding under the Information and Communication Technology Innovation Fund (ICTIF) through the Digital Education Revolution (DER) in order to improve school and teacher capacity in I.C.T. and learning.
"Sustained effort in student outcomes requires a sustained effort to change teaching and learning practices" Levin & Fullan (2008)
Four projects are setting about leading the way for improving the overall capacity and effectiveness of current and future educators in embedding and sustaining ICT into teaching and learning opportunities.
* Teaching Teachers for the Future
* ICT in Everyday Learning
Pathways for Learning Anywhere Anytime; A Network for Educators
* Leading ICT Learning in Technology Enabled Schools
It is hypothesised that these projects will bring about further sustainable improvement in schools which involves ‘lateral capacity building’ in which schools and districts learn from each other. When this happens two change forces are unleashed, namely knowledge and motivation. Levin & Fullan (2008) ICT in Schools The Teaching Teachers for the Future initiative 'targets systematic change in the Information and Communication Technology in Education proficiency of graduate teachers across Australia by building the ICTW capacity of teacher educators.'
The initiative is organized into three components
Component 1: Led by the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership. Focused on trial and development of explicit ICT dimensions for graduate teacher standards.
Component 2: Led by Education Services Australia. Focused on providing educators with professional learning and digital resources through a nation wide collection of digital resources.
Component 3: Led by the Australian Learning and teaching council and The Australian Council of Deans of Education. Focused on building teacher educator and pre service teacher capacity within teacher education institutions through the secondment of accomplished ICTE educators to Australian Universities. Focused on the sharing and development of curriculum and pedagogy and the development of professional learning networks.
DEEWR (no date a) Teaching Teachers for the Future The ICT in Everyday Learning project aims to improve capacity of teachers to embed ICT into teaching and learning whilst implementing the Australian Curriculum.
The project will 'develop, trial and disseminate online professional learning resources, designed to support Digital Education Revolution initiatives.'
Resources will be investigated based on the following criteria, before being trialled and made available to DEECD employees as an online professional learning tool;
* understanding and using digital content
* mobile devices
* collaboration tools and devices
* game based technologies
* communication tools and devices
DEEWR (no date b) ICT in Everyday Learning: Teacher Online Toolkit Bourdieu (as cited in Thompson, 2002) suggests that curriculum can be thought of as "cultural capital- the knowledges that are valued. Curriculum and assessment regimes are the meaning of creating a heoirachy of cultural capital, and cultural capital acquired through formal processes of education and credentialing becomes ‘symbolic capital’."
In the Australian Curriculum, cultural capital in ICT has been divided into 5 interwoven components students learn to create, communicate, collaborate and develop capability in ICT through the ICT learning continuum.
* Applying Social and Ethical Protocols and Practices when using ICT.
Students develop an understanding of intellectual property, personal security, information security and the place of ICT in society.
* Investigating using ICT.
Students develop and plan information searches, identify and access relevant information and data
*Creating with ICT.
Students use ICT to record ideas and concepts and generate solutions to problems. Australian Curriculum Accelerate: Department's Innovation Model Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Throughout the incubate period ideas are refined,methodology identified and projects undertaken based on the readiness of practitioners.
According to DEECD its Innovation methodology for practitioner led research follows a model underpinned by the following key principles
1. There is an authorizing environment for the project
2. The research is practitioner led
3. The project uses the Department's Project Management framework
4. The research has a formative evaluation component
5. The research is informed and guided by an expert panel
6. The outcomes and research findings are disseminated
Implementation of a project through a structured approach can include;
*A project charter
*Access to an expert panel
*An induction program for participants
*A rigorous change management program
* Professional learning opportunities for practitioners The Transformation
Variables 21st Century Learning 21st Century Learning The Educator Implementation 21st Century Learning Policy The Department of Education's Innovation Model comprises 3 stages
The Deparment's innovation model is based on the three diamond model or disciplined innovation model used by the uks innovation unit for public services.The Innovation Unit states that 'To achieve lasting change innovation must be systematic and disciplined. We achieve this for our clients by using following our Disciplined Innovation model, our methodology for delivering innovation that is radical, achieveable and scalable' Stimulate: At this level research includes looking to future practice,articulating and identifying examples and elements of best practice and networking with other innovative professions to challenge ideas. During the stimulate stage, new ideas are generated and researched. The DEECD innovation model recognizes that "next practice in education stems from work at the practitioner level." Incubate: The accelerate component of the innovation model focuses on the transfer of new knowledge and sharing of successful innovative projects and practices.
To achieve this transition of knowledge between professions the accelerate phase is dissected into four elements.
Document:Documentation is finalized and transferred into a format that can be shared.
Publish:Innovative project findings are published in a range of appropriate places to suit the format and audience.
Promote:Following publication, promotion is essential to make the target audience aware of the resources available to them.
Scale Up:Ideas may be scaled up to a local, regional or system level so they can be applied more broadly and become part of mainstream practice. Bishop & Glynn, 1999; Gilbourn & Youdell, 2000 (as cited in Thompson, 2002) favoured explanations that highlight the processes of schooling This line of argument suggests that the ‘problem’ was that the different knowledges and skills that working class children bring with them to school are not those that are important for school success. It is not the children who are disadvantaged but rather it is the school that does the disadvantaging.
Innovative schools and teacher's are fostering kids' love of technology and have begun to integrate information and communication technology (ICT) into the curriculum, connecting classrooms across Australia and the world to improve learning conditions. Brown (2008)
So will the introduction of 1:1 learning devices in classrooms serve to further disadvantage those already deemed disadvantaged in the current school climate or bring about a new dimension to equity in education and bridge the gap between performance in schools?
DEECD (2010b) draws on the British research Becta (2009) whose body of research shows that integrating digital technology into learning environments and teacher practice can positively impact on student engagement and motivation, promote improved opportunities for students to control the construction of knowledge and to learn through collaboration and conversation, and improve connections across sites of learning, and with the real world. Thompson (2002) argues in article Schooling the Rustbelt Kids: Making the Difference in Changing Times that currently the children who are most successful in the ‘game’ of school education are those who already hold some of the 'cultural capital' (Boerdieu as cited in Thompson, 2002) that counts for school achievement.
Ipads and other learning tools are bringing about a new dimension to learning in the 21st century.The days of a pedagogical practice approach of one size fits all or teaching to the middle cohort of students are redundant.Students are coming from rich and diverse learning experiences.
A new generation of learners has emerged. That of the digital native or Generation Z. A generation of individuals that has been born into a digital media environment. They have never known life without the internet, mobile phones and computers.
Learners that demand a new style of education.Teaching and learning, where access to information can be delivered anytime and anywhere.An education that is differentiated, relevant to real life situations and personalised. Where students are placed at the centre of curriculum design and teaching and learning constantly reviewed and altered to suit learners needs.
The Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) defines this personalisation of learning as not just being about "learners choosing between a range of pre existing options, but more about them becoming co- producers, involved in the design of their options, or their curriculum".(2009a). Australian Curriculum
cont. Organizing elements for ICT Capability In order to achieve the goals of Australian schooling promoting equity and excellence and all Australians becoming successful learners, confident and creative individuals and active and informed citizens, the Melbourne Declaration outlines a need for all school sectors to collaborate in order to ensure a world class national curriculum for Australian schools.
Through the national curriculum every student is to develop 'general capabilities that underpin flexible and analytical thinking, a capacity to work with others and an ability to move across subject disciplines to develop new expertise.' MCEECDYA (2008)
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority.(2012). General Capabilities in the Australian Curriculum Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/General%20capabilities.pdf
Bittman, M., Rutherford, L., Brown, J., Unsworth, L., (2011). Digital Natives? New and old media and children’s outcomes. Australian Journal of Education- Volume 55 , 161-175
Brice, A. (2011) iPads Transferring or transforming education?. Teacher: The National Education Magazine Retrieved November 16, 2012, from http://0search.informit.com.au.library.vu.edu.au/fullText;dn=187305;res=AEIPT
Brown, F. (2008) From Chalkboards to Keyboards Retrieved November 10, 2012, from http://digital.realviewtechnologies.com/?xml=teacher.xml&iid=33758
Conole, G., De Laat, M., Dillon, T., Darby, J. (2008). ‘Disruptive technologies’, ‘pedagogical innovation’: What’s new? Findings from an in- depth study of students’ use and perception of technology Retrieved November 1, 2012, from http://www.e4innovation.com/Papers/conole_lxp_cal_paper%20v2.pdf
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. (no date). The Department’s Innovation Model Retrieved November 16 , 2012, from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/support/Pages/ihmodel.aspx
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (no date). iPads for learning: Evaluation Retrieved November 16, 2012 from
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development.(2009a). Technology for learning: personal, portable and sociable Retrieved October 1 , 2012, from http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/researcharticle_technology_for_learning.pdf
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development.(2009b). Transforming the learning experience: Transforming learning through innovation Retrieved October 8 , 2012, from http://thought-is-hard-work.wikispaces.com/file/view/Transfoming+the+learning.pdf
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development.(2010a). Visible learning; what’s good for the goose… Retrieved October 1 , 2012, from http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Researcharticle_visible_learning.pdf
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. (2010b). In Your Hands iPads for Learning: Getting Started Retrieved November 10 , 2012, from http://asp-uk.secure-zone.net/v2/index.jsp?id=639/684/1619&lng=en
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development.(2010c). In your hands iPads for learning: 21 steps to iPad success Retrieved November 10 , 2012, from http://asp-uk.secure-zone.net/v2/index.jsp?id=639/684/1625&lng=en
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development.(2011). Powerful Learning: taking educational reform to scale. Paper No. 20 Retrieved November 15, 2012, from http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/hopkins_powerful_learning_paper.pdf
Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. (no date a) .Teaching teachers for the future Retrieved November 6, 2012, from http://www.deewr.gov.au/Schooling/DigitalEducationRevolution/DigitalStrategyforTeachers/Documents/TeachingTeachersfortheFuture.pdf
Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. (no date b) .ICT in everyday learning: Teacher Online Toolkit Retrieved November 6, 2012, from http://www.deewr.gov.au/Schooling/DigitalEducationRevolution/DigitalStrategyforTeachers/Documents/ICTinEverydayLearning.pdf
Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. (no date c) .Anywhere, anytime teacher professional learning Retrieved November 6, 2012, from http://www.deewr.gov.au/Schooling/DigitalEducationRevolution/DigitalStrategyforTeachers/Documents/AnywhereAnytimeTeacherProfessionalLearning.pdf
Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. (no date d) .Leading ICT in Learning Retrieved November 6, 2012, from http://www.deewr.gov.au/Schooling/DigitalEducationRevolution/DigitalStrategyforTeachers/Documents/LeadingICTinLearning.pdf
Downes, J., Bishop, P. (2012). Educators engage digital natives and learn from their experiences with technology. Middle School Journal
Fitzsimmons, B. (no date) Mobile Learning Devices: Changing pedagogy Retrieved November 16, 2012, from http://www.decd.sa.gov.au/research/files/links/Changing_Pedagogy_Crowther.pdf
iPads in Action (Images). Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/gallery
Innovation Unit. (no date). Disciplined Innovation Model Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.innovationunit.org/sites/default/files/IU%20Triple%20Diamond.pdf
Kanwar, S. (2012). Personalised learning: The new world order in education. International Journal for Cross- Disciplinary Subjects in Education- Volume 3, 772-779
Levin, B.(2009) Change Wars: Reform Without (Much) Rancor. Hawker Brownlow Education
Levin, B., Fullan, M., (2008). Learning about system renewal. Educational Management Administration & Leadership- Volume 36, 289-303
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs. (2008). Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians Retrieved November 10, 2012, from http://www.mceecdya.edu.au/verve/_resources/National_Declaration_on_the_Educational_Goals_for_Young_Australians.pdf
Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D., Gonzalez, N., (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice- Volume XXXI
O’ Rourke, M. (2009) Harnessing ICT for quality learning and teaching. Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Retrieved October 1 , 2012, from http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/researcharticle_harnessing_ICT.pdf
Pilgrim, J., Bledsoe, C., Reily, S. (2012). New Technologies in the Classroom. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin- Volume 78 , 6-15
Thomson, P. (2002) Schooling the Rustbelt Kids: Making the Difference in Changing Times, Allen & Unwin, Sydney
Unknown Compiler (Uploaded November 28, 2007). A vision of K-12 Students today (Video File) Retrieved from
Unknown Compiler (Published July 16, 2012). iPads for learning wi fi (video file) Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=mjGYHfd6tvQ#!
Morris, D. (2010). E- confidence or incompetence: Are teachers ready to teach in the 21st century?. World Journal on Educational Technology- Volume 2, 141-153
LoPresti, M., (2012) iPads in the Classroom: Apple Takes Aim at the Textbook Market. EContent Magazine Retrieved November 10, 2012, from http://www.econtentmag.com/Articles/News/News-Feature/iPads-in-the-Classroom-Apple-Takes-Aim-at-the-Textbook-Market-81702.htm ‘The general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviors and dispositions that, together with curriculum content in each learning area and the cross-curriculum priorities, will assist students to live and work successfully in the twenty-first century’ACARA (2012)
The Australian Curriculum includes seven general capabilities:
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
Critical and creative thinking
Personal and social capability
Intercultural understanding. General capabilities in the Australian Curriculum Reference List &
Bibliography The complex and ever changing nature of technology means that there is likely to be a range of possible blockers, that is those things that will hinder advancements in the integration of technology in classrooms.
One such blocker is outlined by Selwyn (as cited in Fitzsimmons) who points out that "the underlying assumption is that children will quickly and effortlessly adapt to using new technologies' and the perception that they will know how to interact with technology is misplaced."
DEECD reaffirms this notion in their research article Technology for learning: personal, portable and sociable outlining that 'we cannot assume that all students are natural users of all digital technologies.'
Although many children are thought to be 'native speakers of the digital language',(Presnky, 2011 as cited in Bittman et al. 2011) quick and active learners and natural multi taskers, it has to be expected that educators will spend a significant amount of time guiding a small number of students, who along with adults are 'digital immigrants' (Bittman et al., 2011) to technology, how to navigate and troubleshoot minor technological problems with the device. The lower the age group of children the more time educators will require to deal with such issues.
Ben Levin (2009) suggests in article Reform Without (Much) Rancor that anyone who advocates for improved student outcomes have a responsibility to try to do whatever (we) can, even if less than perfect. He suggests that in our school systems today, time spent waiting for just the right conditions is a luxury that we cannot afford.
The move from traditional approaches to student centred or personalised learning is one that has and will continue to take significant time and effort.This shift in learning is paralleled by advances in technology in schools.
Since the introduction of computers in schools in the 80's and 90's to a move towards computer labs or a bank of central computers, to computers in classrooms and as technology advances to today where each individual has the potential to have a computer or other portable learning device. Thus the teaching and learning environment has had to and will have to continue to evolve over time in order to best suit the learners of today and tomorrow.
Kirkwood and Price's (as cited in Conole,De Laat, Dillon & Darby,2008) evaluation of data documents that "in terms of access to and use of ICT suggests that there has been a fundamental shift in students access to ICT- arguing that this reflects "not only attitudinal changes but the changing needs of society". DEECD iPads for
Learning Trial "These findings have been synthesized into eight key variables characterizing transformation. A strong focus on all the variables is essential for schools to achieve sustainable whole school transformation demonstrating evidence of innovation and student centered learning."(DEECD 2009b) In the interconnected world of the 21st century, new technologies are creating teaching and learning opportunities that develop the knowledge, skills and behaviours required by individuals to live, learn and work in the future.
"Students need a curriculum that meets the demands of an increasingly globalised and interconnected world in the 21st century" DEECD (2010b)
The following clip captures the essence of what it means to be a 21st century learner. As teaching and learning changes, schools and educators will play an important role not only in the successful implementation of 1:1 devices, but also in protecting the safety of individuals.
The wireless capability of 1:1 devices enables greater access to information and collaborative opportunities for students.
With this increased capacity comes an increased need for students to understand their rights and responsibilities as individuals participating in online communities.
Schools have an important role to play in preparing students in responsible online behavior to protect the safety of themselves and others. In 2011 in partnership with Apple Corporation, the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development explored how technology can best be used as an educational tool.The trial examined the impact of iPads on student learning and how they can transform teaching and learning practices.
Touted as an Australian first, the iPads for learning trial saw over 700 iPads distributed to students in 9 schools.
The trial aimed to 'bridge the gap' between the technology used by students in day to day life and that used in schools.
A range of educational settings participated in the trial. The diverse nature of the participants aimed to capture the unique ways in which different settings would and could use iPads for learning.
DEECD Ipads for Learning Trial
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=mjGYHfd6tvQ#! DEECD iPads for
Learning Trial DEECD’s 2011 iPads for Learning: In Their Hands trial investigated the capacity of iPads to:
• increase independent and self-initiated learning among students
• increase student motivation and active engagement in learning
• improve teachers’ capacity to plan for and meet individual student needs
• improve student learning outcomes
• extend students’ learning beyond the classroom
• improve parental engagement in learning and strengthen home-school links.
The trial has shown that all of these outcomes can be achieved through the effective use of iPads. But it is 'quality teaching and support' that makes this possible, not just the device.
Research conducted by Conole et al. (2008) identified that "students found that technology opened up a variety of possibilities in terms of enabling them to engage in a range of different learning processes suited to their individual needs and preferences."
These findings mirrored that of educators who participated in the Department of Education and Early Chilhood Development's Ipads in Schools trial, where it was found that;
Teachers found the iPad to be an especially valuable learning tool for students with specific learning needs
Students used the iPad to improve their learning outcomes
The iPad was used to extend learning beyond the classroom, facilitating learning wherever the student had the iPad (at home, at camp, on an excursion) and increasing parental engagement in learning.
90% of students said that learning was more fun when using the iPads. Findings of research conducted by the University of Melbourne in Victorian schools found that sustainable change in transforming and managing transforming learning environments had specific characteristics.
*Clear vision for improving student learning
*Leadership that is focused around the continual improvement of student outcomes
*An integrated curriculum that provides scope and complexity of learning in content areas at each of the stages of development.
*Regular collection and dissemination of data
*Focus on improved teacher professional develop and student centred learning
*Policies in place for effective sharing of good teaching and learning practices
*Accessible ICT, that is interwoven into curriculum areas
* Professional Learning Teams who plan, teach and reflect together
*Focus on interconnectedness of professional learning, curriculum resources and the use of space and ICT for the benefit of all.
DEECD (2009b) Transforming the Learning Experience What does it mean for learning? iPads in schools trial
results However not all research conducted is supportive of the integration of technologies in schools.Fitzimmons quotes Wegerif and Dawes (2004) who noted that "when students were left to complete computer tasks with little or no interaction with the teacher, task completion was low and little knowledge was gained."
Fitzsimmons refers to his own observational data, where it was noted that at times up to 40% of students in an undirected group were considered 'off task'.
Conole et al (2008) research also suggested that "a downside of technology was that it was distracting; for some students. A background of information and multiple communication is part of the learning palette, others still need to create space, peace and quiet in order to learn."
Although the research data of Conole et al. was collected on university students, its outcomes can still be applied more broadly with students across various educational sectors.
Further to this it was noted that students place greater value on technologies they had discovered or selected for themselves. This personilisation resulted in a sense of control, which came across as a key factor of success in the use of technology. Therefore posing the question of whether students would still feel a level of personalisation and ownership of the learning experience if the technological device used in the classroom was either not selected by the individual but rather the school and/or educators, and would the ownership associated with having their own 1:1 learning device be transferable in classrooms where devices were shared between groups and across year levels. Where funding permits, schools are trying to upscale the Ipads in schools trial, be it through incorportating iPads into the curriculum or other similar 1:1 learning devices with the aim of ultimately improving outcomes for all students.
Ben Levin's theory of action approach to generate real improvement in schools outlined in article Reform Without (Much) Rancor suggests that for educators ‘Effective change is a matter of both will and skill. People have to want to do it, and they have to know how to do it. Both are necessary; will without skill produces effort but no results, while skill without will produces no effort."The results of the iPads in schools survey questions whether all educators have the will and/or skill to make use of technology in classrooms.
There are 4 key elements to Levin's approach for generating whole school improvement;
1.Have a plan that focuses on improved student outcomes and is founded on the best available evidence
To improve student outcomes, improvement plans must address those outcomes that matter to a good education. "Improvement plans must address the things we know that matter to those outcomes: changing teaching and learning (and assessment) practices, improving teachers’ skills to do so, strengthening leadership capacity, improving student engagement in learning, and reaching out to parents to support their children’s learning." 21st Century Learning Thompson (2002) suggests that somewhere in the struggle for equity and justice in schooling there is the larger question of "changing the knowledge that counts." Suggesting the 'game' of education and its 'players' will remain the same until education is transformed and a child’s prior knowledge, skills and interests are brought into the mainstream classroom.
Ipads and other 1:1 learning devices open up new learning opportunities to students never before available. The mobile nature of devices allows for collaboration between individuals and groups.Supporting the views of theorists including Dewey and Vygotsky who see learning as a personal process brought about through social situations.
The use of various applications enables students to think, share, construct, create, discover and evaluate. Many of these promoting higher order thinking skills; critically and creatively thinking and using knowledge in new situations. It allows for personalised learning that is relevant to students home lives and acknowledges the 'rich and diverse' experiences and prior skills that students bring to schools.
'It is the tasks that students undertake that are at the heart of personalised learning. It is not what teachers think they have asked students to do, nor what the prescribed curriculum says they should be doing, but what students are actually doing and the sense they make of it that is fundamental.' DEECD (2011)
Catering to the needs of each and every individual is a hallmark of the change in teaching and learning. In order to cater to the difficult task of feeding the thirst for knowledge of these 'innovation hungry individuals' (Kanwar 2012) a personalised learning approach seems the only option for educators.
Student centred learning requires that teachers have the knowledge, skills and understandings to differentiate curriculum to meet the needs of every child.
It requires teachers to find novel ways of transferring knowledge that will "make learning not just an event but a lifelong experience." Kanwar (2012)
Conole et al. (2008) refer to Morice (2000) who labels this as the notion of the ‘nintendo’; "where boundaries between students; use of technologies for learning and gaming are blurred. The rich interactive and engaging environment of games therefore has lead to an increased expectation of similar levels of quality for learning materials." System change, the application of 1:1 learning devices, teacher capacity and personalised learning outcomes will look different in each setting and at different points in time. We can not expect any two schools to look the same or be at the same point in their 'transformation' to 21st century teaching and learning.
"Real reform requires sustained attention from many people at all levels of the education system".Reform strategies must be explained and implemented in a way that engages the idealism and professional commitment of educators. Appealing to educators sense of moral purpose- their belief that education is about success for all students- is a great potential motivator but not enough by itself. That is why large scale reform must also pay attention to other key aspects of motivation- capacity, resources, peer and leadership support and identify and so on. It is the combination that makes the motivational difference." Levin & Fullan (2008) the Fitzsimmons also highlights that the introduction of the iPad requires teachers to invest significantly more 'talk time' in classroom management and general troubleshooting of ICT issues.
Moreover results of the iPads in school trial from primary and special schools appear to be in juxtaposition to those from secondary schools where the following contrasts in data were documented;
85% of primary teachers and 90% of special school teachers thought that students were more motivated and engaged in learning, vs 32% in secondary schools.
83% of primary teachers and 67% of special school teachers thought that using the iPad had improved students’ literacy outcomes, vs 16% in secondary schools.
So while technology in schools appears to be opening up more opportunities to students, the views of educators and in particular those in secondary settings could be seen as a possible blocker in the transformation of learning environments into 21st century learning spaces.
Despite these disparities DEECD (2010b) concluded that the iPads for Learning Trial "reinforces that quality of teaching, combined with purposeful and effective use of ICT contributes to improved learning." Transforming the Learning Experience: Transforming learning through innovation (DEECD 2009b) details a range of student centred approaches, which when used in combination are required by 21st century educators for effective personalised learning.
Inquiry project based learning
Routine creative use and application of ICT resources
Strong and practical team work
Immersion and rotation in diverse learning activities
Professional learning in the learning space
Effective and explicit coaching
Focus on higher order thinking and students as researchers
Active learning and positive relationships
Integrated curriculum and student presentation
Explicit instruction and one-on-one learning Image: Ipads in Action Image: Ipads in Action Image: Ipads in Action 2.Implement that plan in a careful but relentless way
Implementation cannot be assumed or left to chance; it must be carefully nurtured and addressed directly. Effective implementation strategies will generate more motivation and commitment to core goals.
3. Create real buy in by paying careful attention to two-way communications and taking very seriously the views and ideas of stakeholders
"Education reform often remains something that is done to schools and educators. We have learnt often the hard way- that imposed reform is mostly unsuccessful reform." Levin believes that leaders of reform must be willing to build support by engaging in real dialogue with all parties whose understanding and support is vital.In schools this refers to staff, students, parents and other key stakeholders.
4.Manage inevitable distractions and competing pressures so that there can be a sustained focus on a small number of key goals
"Managing change means accepting the reality of opposition and distraction.
‘Despite all the distractions, the importance of the original goals and strategy must constantly be reinforced in actions, such as budget allocations, as well as in words." A Theory of Action
*Communicating with ICT.
Students collaborate and exchange information with others, apply accepted social conventions and use appropriate security processes to protect information.
*Managing and Operating ICT.
Students use ICT appropriately and effectively, select appropriate software, understand the main components of ICT systems and manage and maintain digital files.
ACARA (2012) "If we teach today's students as we taught yesterday's we rob them of tomorrow"
Dewey (cited in Pilgrim et al., 2012) 21st Century Learning We are seeing a transformation in education from traditional approaches to teaching, to student centred or personalised learning.A change from the teacher as the instructor/decision maker and student as the receiver of information where pedagogy was formed around rote learning, individual work and a single unified curriculum for all."Where knowledge acquisition was the primary aim of the conventional education system, the change towards application oriented teaching is going to be the hallmark of the future." Kanwar (2012)
In order to change educational probabilities "teachers’ working conditions must be such that they are able to find, use and value each child's particular configurations of knowledge, narratives and interests."Thompson (2002) They must find a way to engage students to build on their local 'funds of knowledge' Moll, Tapia & Whitmore, 1993 (as cited in Thompson, 2002) Image: iPads in Action References Image: Ipads in Action Video: A vision of K-12 students today