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Non-defining Relative Clauses

Global Intermediate p. 81
by

Selma Tamdoğan

on 8 March 2012

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Transcript of Non-defining Relative Clauses

Non-Defining Relative Clauses What do you see in the picture? Elephants are big animals. They are afraid of mice. Instead of making two sentences, we can combine these two and make one. Elephants, which are big animals, are afraid of mice. Elephants are big animals. They are afraid of mice. Here is a question for you: Are we talking about all elephants, or just one type or group? We are talking about all the animals. We are giving EXTRA information about elephants. Look at this sentence now: "Elephants which love mice are unusual." Are we talking about all the elephants or one group of elephants only? We are talking about a group of elephants only. The elephants that love mice.
This is not extra information. We need it to understand the sentence. Elephants love mice. They are unusual. Let's have a look at two sentences together: "Elephants which love mice are unusual." "Elephants, which are big animals, are afraid of mice." What's the difference? If you put commas (,) between the clauses, it means that you are giving extra information and that clause is not really necessary. Madonna, who is currently 54 years old, is the world's top-selling female recording artist of all time. extra info with proper names, we usually use commas (,) Decide if these relative clauses should be defining (necessary) or non-defining (unnecessary). 1)I have three brothers.
My brother who lives in Sidney came to see me last month.
My brother, who lives in Sidney, came to see me last month. 2)I have one sister.
My sister who is 25 years old spent her holiday in France.
My sister, who is 25 years old, spent her holiday in France. we don't use "that" with non-defining relative clauses. Madonna, that is currently 54 years old, is the world's top-selling female recording artist of all time. 3) Bob's mum has lost her keys.
Bob's mum who is a musician has lost her car keys.
Bob's mum, who is a musician, has lost her car keys. 4) Tamara has two cats. Both of them are black.
Tamara's two cats which can play outside are black.
Tamara's two cats, which can play outside, are black. 5) We are on holiday. Yesterday we visited a church.
The church which we visited yesterday is very old.
The church, which we visited yesterday, is very old. Exercise 2. Use the notes about the bubble economy in Japan to write a paragraph. Put 'extra' information in non-defining clauses. The bubble economy years, which were years of great wealth, started around 1985. . The bubble economy years, which were years of great wealth, started around 1985. In Japan, where the interest rate had gone down, many people suddenly had a lot of money. The banks, which had mostly lent money to companies, gave loans to anybody. The Japanese economy, whose share prices had risen dramatically, crashed in 1990. Vocabulary and Pronunciation 1. Complete the tables. You can use your dictionaries. Then listen and check.
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