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Fiona Tiongson

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of CELLS

Smaller parts that make up of a Cell.
First introduced by ROBERT HOOKE in 1665.
Cells are the smallest unit of all living things, and are the building blocks of life.
Basic Types of Cell
"Eu" = True and "Karyote" = Nucleus
Do exhibit a Nucleus and other membrane bound organelles.
Could be Multi- or Unicellular
- cells that lack a nucleus and any other membrane bound organelles.
- usually single celled organisms like bacteria.
- Are used to breakdown and recycle substances inside the cell.
- Serves as the bone and muscle of the cell.
- Storage area in a cell that hold water, minerals, and food and waste.
- also known as Plasma Membrane or Plasmalemma
- Found inside the Cell Membrane and composed of fluid-like substances where the membrane- bound organelles are located.
- carry substances in and out of the cell.
- Present only in plants, algae, and fungi
- Control center of the cell.
- Called the "Power house of the cell".
- Present only in Plants.
Two Types:

Smooth ER
- has no ribosomes attached to it; builds lipids and participates in detoxification of toxins.

Rough ER
- does have many ribosomes attached to it; prepares proteins for export or insertion into the cell membrane.

- Small Granular structures made up of
and Proteins.
- Process proteins and package them into small membrane bound vesicles. The material processed by the golgi will be transported around the cell.
Organelles found in a PROKARYOTIC CELL

- outer sticky protective layer
- rigid structure which helps the bacterium maintain its shape
- separates the cell from the environment
- infolding of plasma membrane to aid in compartmentalization
- region where naked DNA is found
semi-fluid cell interior
no membrane-bound organelles
location for metabolic enzymes
location of ribosomes for protein synthesis
- Covers the outside of the cell and controls what material enters and leaves the cell.
Made up of two layers pf phospholipids with proteins and carbohydrates scattered around within and inside the bilipid layer like a
Fluid Mosaic Model
- states that the phospholipid bilayer behaves like a fluid more than it behaves like a solid.
- Serves as the skeleton of the plants.
- Protector and Supporter of the whole cell.
- Forms the largest part of the cell where most life processes occur.
- Contains
- Deoxyribonucleic Acid
- Contains hereditary materials of the organism transmitted from one generation to another.
- Responsible for converting food and oxygen to energy, this is called "Cellular Respiration"
- Store starch and pigments.
- Chloroplastids or Chloroplasts
contain green pigments called chlorophyll
- Chromoplasts
yellow and orange pigments to flowers and fruits.
- Leucoplasts
Colorless plastids for the storage of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Consists of:
- a cytoskeleton attached to the cell.
- cytoskeleton that are not connected to the cell membrane.
- It could also allow cells to move.
ex. Amoeboid movement of amoeba
Use of Cilia by Paramecium
Flagellum by Euglena
-Contain different Hydrolytic enzymes called "Lysozymes".
- Contractile Vacuoles
collect excess water from the cell and expel it to the outside.
Central Vacuoles
Large vacuoles in Plants that cnontain a liquid called "Cell Sap"
Food particles needed by the cells are transported in as well as secreted by the cell that need to be transported out.
- A membranous structure forming a network of canals where proteins and other molecules are being transported.
Ribonucleic Acid
The RNA found in the Ribosomes is produced in the Nucleus and enters the Cytoplasm through the Nuclear Pores.
- Involved in the Production of Proteins.
-Makes Pretein that the cell needs for chemical reactions. They received directions from the hereditary material in the nucleus on how, when, and in what order to make specific preteins.
Full transcript