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By Claire Schillinger and Scott McLaughlin for EDU 550 - SJU - Final Project

Scott McLaughlin

on 24 April 2014

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How has reform molded and challenged our teacher and student expectations?
Teacher Assessment and Development
How has educational reform influenced how we assess and develop a teacher´s content, skill and career pathway?
Teacher and Student Expectations
Teacher Quality

Narrative Notes: Learning Culture
social class and ability
environment and the effect on student learning expectations
high-stakes testing and student expectations
Student standardization and creative intelligence

Dictating learning outcomes
depersonalized student expectations
Establish an equitable pool of teachers who are fully prepared and have significant training to be posted equitably over rural, suburban and urban environments.
Solutions for the Culture of Learning
Solutions for Teacher Assessment and Development
Ensure that clarity in definition, application and review is prescribed for teacher assessment and provide adequate scaffolding
Solutions for Teacher and Student Expectations
Pedagogical pluralism is an important note for educators, specifically in urban school environments. By addressing the differences that are meaningful for learning outcomes, we are allowing the individual to fully participate and succeed. This includes class, gender, race, academic ability, and ethnicity. Provides a baseline for equality and equity to unfold, especially for underprivileged schools in urban environments.

The reform we see has been on a long chain of legislative reforms dating back to the early 1980s. Legislation from Nation at Risk to No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top. Each has addressed teacher quality but failed to establish lasting programs. Instead, it has tried to support teachers and administrators in a superficial and unsustainable manner.

Although seemingly lofty, solutions mentioned here have strengths and weaknesses. Training of pluralism seems unattainable in a culture where student test scores are tied to teacher quality. Who defines the pedagogical pluralism most effective? How can we provide a practical and tangible toolkit?
Has the teach to the test culture developed so far that the notion of culture not driven by assessment and number attainment seem archaic? However, the strength of reestablishing the importance of the learning culture as developed and led by the teacher could see greater improvement in student learning, focusing on those students who need a culture where both their background and learning needs are part of how we educate could usher in a true improvement in student skill and schooling.
Both forms of legislation the history of educational reform have all focused on teacher development and review but few have the ability to see the issue as something separate from teacher accountability.

Highly Educated Status and NCLB. Indicators of status, most highly qualified do not teacher in urban, minority-rich schools.

Break away from student achievement equals teacher achievement. No clear cut legislation guidelines for teachers to assess others on implementation guidelines.

Consistency and Implementation
Teacher evaluation systems vary from state to state. The only consistency is that each state implements its own evaluations differently. For teachers to be properly assessed, consistency in data collection and observation is the first step and the second is implementation by the school administrators or local education agencies to follow through with all facets of teacher evaluations.

2009-10, only one state supported use of teacher evaluation systems that: measured performance with more than two rating levels; were based in part on student achievement gains; and were based in part on multiple observations. - See more at: http://www.edcentral.org/shifting-landscape-state-teacher-evaluation-policy/#sthash.luqBbzu7.8RtakUIw.dpuf (Tooley, 2014)

However, despite research showing that additional observations can improve rating reliability, there has not been a huge increase in the number of states requiring all teachers to receive multiple observations—only 15 did so in 2013 (37 require multiple observations for some teachers). - See more at: http://www.edcentral.org/shifting-landscape-state-teacher-evaluation-policy/#sthash.luqBbzu7.dpuf (Tooley, 2014)

Clarity, consistency and implementation should be the objectives for successful teacher assessment in order to help develop and encourage educators to succeed in America's public education system.
Baker, A. (2014, February). Common Core Curriculum Now Has Critics on the Left - The New York Times. Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/17/nyregion/new-york-early-champion-of-common-core-standards-joins-critics.html?_r=0

Boser, U. (2012, March). Race to the Top: What Have We Learned From The States So Far? Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/issues/2012/03/pdf/rtt_states_execsumm.pdf

Executive Office of the President, U.S. Department of Education. (2014). Setting the pace: Expanding opportunity for America's students under Race to the Top. Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/settingthepacerttreport_3-2414_b.pdf

Kozol, J. (2005). The Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America. New York: Crown Publishers.

Layton, L. (2014, February). Teachers union head calls for Core ‘course correction’ - The Washington Post. Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/teachers-union-head-calls-for-core-course-correction/2014/02/19/0f6b2222-99b8-11e3-80ac-63a8ba7f7942_story.html

Office of the Press Secretary (2009, January). Archived: Executive Summary of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Retrieved April 2014, from https://www2.ed.gov/nclb/overview/intro/execsumm.html

OTL Campaign (2010, July). Civil Rights Framework for Providing All Students an Opportunity to Learn through Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act | National Opportunity to Learn Campaign | Education Reform for Equity and Opportunity. Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.otlcampaign.org/resources/civil-rights-framework-providing-all-students-opportunity-learn-through-reauthorization-el

Tooley, M. (2014, February). A Shifting Landscape for State Teacher Evaluation Policy - Ed Central | Ed Central. Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.edcentral.org/shifting-landscape-state-teacher-evaluation-policy/

Tozer, S., Senese, G. Violas, P. (2011). School and Society: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (6th ed.).New York: McGraw Hill.

Works Cited
Specific Focus on:
Learning Culture
Teacher Assessment

How has educational reform influenced how and to what end we teach?

Defining Teacher Quality
2001: No Child Left Behind Act - "Highly Qualified Teachers"
2009: Race to the Top - “Effective Teachers”
How is the ability for teachers to establish successful cultures of learning challenged by latest educational reforms and how does this in turn damage teacher quality?
"Highly Qualified Teachers"
1. At least a bachelor’s degree
2. Full state certification
3. Demonstrated subject-matter competency in the core academic subjects assigned
“Effective Teachers”
1. Link student achievement and student growth data to the teachers of
these students

2. Student achievement is measured by testing, grade level advancement, growth and other data collection devices

Rep. George Miller, chairman of the U.S. House Education and Labor Committee, makes an opening statement at a committee hearing on boosting teacher and principal quality on May 11, 2007.
The National Council on Teacher Quality's Kate Walsh provides her thoughts on the status of Race to the Top in 2011.
"The single most important factor in their success is the person in front of the classroom." - President Obama R2T Speech (July 29, 2009)
What defines the learning culture in the classroom today?
Classroom Learning Culture
Is data appropriately measured and evaluated for effective teacher assessment?
Education Trust report entitled "The Real Value of Teachers" affirms the importance of regular student assessment as a means of providing teachers with data to inform them not only about a student’s progress, but also about their own teaching. - NCLB Teacher Toolkit 2004
1. Teacher assessment linked to student performance on standardized tests
2. Average Yearly Progress benchmarks set by NCLB reward schools who meet them / punishes schools who do not
3. Race to the Top provides grant money to states for developing new teacher assessment tools / one requirement is to use measurable data from students to evaluate teacher performance
4. States begin using "value-added models" to assess teachers
How are expectations influencing teacher and student relationships in the classroom?
Race to the Top Expectations
Implement Common Core Curriculum
Data driven assessment
Participate in Professional Development
No Child Left Behind Expectations
Standardized Testing Assessment
Improving Reading and Math scores
Average Yearly Progress
All students advance and learn at the same rate
"I went to Washington to challenge the soft bigotry of low expectations," the president said again in his re-election in September 2004. "It's working. It's making a difference." It is one of those deadly lies which by sheer repetition, is at length accepted by large numbers of Americans… - Kozol, 2005, p. 284
Changing access to resources, teacher support tools, more equitable distribution of qualified teachers

Make significant changes to Common Core standards to better prepare students for college

Narrative Notes: Assessment
Narrative Notes: Expectations
Granting Access to Better Resources, Teachers, Development Programs
Providing better access to resources, teacher development programs and better managing teacher placement will encourage students and teachers to have high expectations of each other. Teacher expectations are often linked to student achievement, but not often linked to access to better resources and development programs. In The Shame of a Nation, Kozol talks about the vastly different educational experiences students in the same city such as New York experience due to funding which provide basic resources to schools. How can teacher's expectations of their students be high when their surrounding academic environment is falling apart around them. The NAACP recommends the federal government promote and provide grants, scholarships and funding to create new and stable teacher development programs. Many teachers are deterred from working in high-need schools or urban settings due to lack of resources, safety, or preparation. Kozol witnessed in California, many high-need teachers left or were replaced after teaching for only two years or less. How can student expectation be high if their teachers are giving up on them? Also, if the school they are attending doesn't have the basic resources or even teachers for learning, where does the motivation to change that come from?

Changing Common Core
Common Core standards are part of President Obama's education reform plan Race to the Top. 45 states signed up, but many have begun to reject or reform the universal standards Common Core has developed for students to prepare for a global economy. Indiana is the first state to drop Common Core standards and now New York, a long standing advocate of Common Core, has started to reject the curriculum as well. Carol Burris, an acclaimed high school principal on Long Island, calls the Common Core a “disaster.” “We see kids,” she said, “they don’t want to go to school anymore.” - NY Times, 2014 If educators and administrators are opposing these standards, how can students and teachers have realistic and attainable goals in the classroom? Creating universal benchmarks and objectives can help develop student objectives and teacher expectations of students if they are clearly defined, measurable and implemented correctly. “My greatest fear for the students of America is that we may lose the promise of the Common Core standards because we screwed up the implementation,” Van Roekel said. - Washington Post, 2014. Dennis Van Roekel, president of the National Education Association, commented on this after listening to educators across America speak out about Common Core issues. “It’s beyond me how anyone would ask teachers to administer tests that have no relation whatsoever to what they have been asked to teach,” Van Roekel said. “Why would you spend the resources and take the time away from instruction to do that?”

Focus on consistency and implementation of teacher evaluation systems in order to ensure data is collected for local education agencies and school districts to review and assess
Teacher evaluation expert, Charlotte Danielson, speaks about teacher evaluation as it relates to standardized test scores. - April 2012
President Reagan's Administration publishes "A Nation at Risk" education "excellence" is the new rally call
Education for Economic Security Act adds new science and math programs to public education
Goals 2000 - Emphasizes standardized testing in all subjects so students could reach their highest potential
No Child Left Behind and authorization of ESEA and an end to Goals 2000 expands testing and standardization
Race to the Top demands States adopt a set of standards, reinforces data collection through testing, and continues to compare education to business
Teacher quality and expectations have been marginalized since "A Nation at Risk" when education shifted to "excellence" and measurable performance results like businesses use to assess their company's profitability.
Narrative Notes: Conclusion
Learning culture, assessment and expectations influence teacher quality in public education today. These factors contribute to the rise in achievement gaps between urban, suburban and rural schools. Kozol journeys to Oklahoma where students learn in converted mobile trailers, California where students learn with rats or to New York where schools are built brand new during times of recession. How can teacher quality improve under such dire educational settings? How are students expected to learn and retain information if they are constantly being tested in order for the school to receive adequate federal funding? What sort of expectations are we setting for public education if basic access to resource and development tools are out of reach for states who don't participate in federal programs because there is no evidence they will improve education? These are the challenges we think teacher's face today that are most relevant to their success in the classroom. The solutions we present are ideal, but achievable if implemented with patience, caution and care. Over the past 30 years, we have seen a shift to a more businesses modeled education approach. During the recent collapse of the economy, education is not cited as the reason, but bad businesses practices themselves. So why not use this example to begin massive reforms to shift education back towards equitable education. If Reagan used the economy to steam roll his administration's agenda towards excellence, why shouldn't the same principle be used to change the focus of education back to equity. There's a reason why church and state are separate in our constitution. The same should be said for business and education.
Inequity and Inequality: reinforced through the pressure of teachers to meet standardized testing

Teacher training focus on half of the problem: training for pedagogical pluralism?
Promoting equality and equity: reforms lead to further teacher-student alienation?
Key question and the backbone of a successful learning culture:
What do teachers need to
to teach their best? (Tozer et al., 2006)
Reforms have replaced ethical and moral standards, an inherent part of liberal education, with higher standards and an overall business-themed ethos of achieving excellence. Expectations of the student by teachers has always been a standard of teaching but reforms since the early 1980s have "hamstrung" teachers. Unrealistic or disconnected expectations seem both to flow and strengthen, as the distance between the classroom and governmental reforms increases. (Kozer 2005)

“I love the kids at P.S. 65… I know that my teaching SFA is a charade…, if I
don’t do it I won’t be permitted to teach these children”. (As quoted in Kozol 2005, p. 86)

"A four year old who “tapped his head with a pencil” and “stared blankly at the test booklet before him,” because he did not yet know how to read.” (Kozol 2005, p.114).

The above quotes form Kozer represent the majority of teacher expectations of students within the scope of the latest educational reforms. One one hand, the reforms seek to raise the standard of teaching and student performance, but often the reforms achieve the opposite: teacher conformity based on the fear of being excluded and curriculum expectations that are not fit to age or ability.
Culture of expectation:
Family income level along with state and federal investment determine a school's culture of student expectation. The higher socioeconomic affluence of the landscape, the greater focus placed on individuality and its cultivation. Suburban and rural schools tend to fall in this category, with significant funding and teacher quality at a high. Expectations and funding seem to decrease in urban settings and the culture of expectation distances itself away from the individual and towards the attainable standard.
Fast fact:
Urban schools suffer from the lack of sustainable teacher quality. Often, teachers are on a provisional basis (not fully certified to teach) and have "emergency teaching status". Kozol on an example from a school in the Bronx "13 of the 15 teachers were provisionals" (Kozol 2005, p. 143).
On-going Question:
Attention to teacher quality in any reform is a sign of indicating that good teaching equals good schooling (Tozer et al., 2006). One cannot help but question how the reforms, since the 1980s, have supported teachers instead of undermining them. Why is the learning culture important and why does good teaching quality preclude the former?
By Claire Schillinger and Scott McLaughlin
Beth Glenn
National Education Director
Karen Lamoreaux - Arkansas State Board of Ed - 12/16
Speaks about Common Core
Representing 1,110 community members

Many school districts in the United States now use "value-added" models to measure teacher effectiveness. These value-added scores are derived from their students' end-of-year test scores, using complex statistical models to adjust for their prior test scores and other factors. In his Brown Bag lecture, Stanford University professor Edward Haertel addressed the reliability and validity of teacher value-added scores. Along with these clips, the full lecture and a PowerPoint and report on this topic by Haertel can be found at this link: http://edpolicy.stanford.edu/events/1011
Narrative Notes: Expectations
Claire and Scott
This concludes our presentation on teacher quality and expectations. Thank you for listening and reading.
Debate on Equity:
The debate on equity begins outside of the classroom where urban schools with a profile of low-income and minority students receive an alarmingly high number of inexperienced, under qualified teachers (Tozer et al., 2006). Once posted in these schools, teachers may have enough classroom hours on their diploma, but the skill set to promote sound pedagogical pluralism is lacking. Questions and tools surrounding how to engage difference which is meaningful for learning outcomes, remains largely unanswered and to a greater extent, ignored.
Defining Teacher Worth:
If we assume that teachers are the great orchestrator of how students learn, then defining teacher worth and status by accountability is not providing them with the tools and authority to teach varying and complex student bodies.
Provide and Guide the establishment a learning environment that empowers teachers to be meaningful and educated decision makers in a school culture and not test administrators in fear of educating for meaning.
Provide "Pluralistic Pedagogy" Training: train teachers in both suburban and urban environments to engage difference in ethnicity, race, social class, gender, sexual orientation as significant for learning outcomes. Train teachers to practice a pluralistic approach to classroom culture, seeking to incorporate and engage all styles of learners and their respective learning needs. Train teachers in recognizing and operating within the culture of power.
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