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Hannah Hornibrook

on 3 November 2014

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Transcript of Holocaust

For the people
Hitler turned the anti-semitic ideology into an answer:

The Jews were to blame for Germany's downfall = hope
Marxism (Communism) and thus the fear of a worse society
Made them the face of all German failure

Hitler built up Germany and nationalism:

Fulfilled promises of more employment, better economy ..etc
Hitler "saved" Germany from the Jewish destruction
More nationalism = more hate for other nations (Jews)
Made the Jews the enemy of German success

◦Consequences of WWI:

Devastation of land, families, lives ...etc same as everywhere else

◦Consequences of the Treaty of Versailles:

Blame = felt unjustified because others took part too

Reparations = poverty to the extreme

Army mostly removed = felt powerless against enemies

Territory reduction = felt trapped in specific land and couldn’t grow/succeed

◦Consequences of the Great depression:

Unemployment, Poverty, Hunger, Homelessness
Starving Jews in Concentration Camps
Jewish Shop
Jewish Ghettos
Marching to their deaths
Treatment to Jews
German SS and police authorities deported a small minority of Jews from ghettos to forced-labor camps and concentration camps.
Concentration / Labor camps
"The General laws"
The Nuremburg Race Laws - September 15th, 1935
Marriage requirements - October 18th, 1935
Total extermination.
What did the Nazis plan?

The Final Solution
Power of Nazi Germany
Enforcement of anti-jewish laws 1933- 1939
How did they do that?
With what power?
WHAT, WHY, HOW the Holocaust ?
was the hatred based on ?
was there so much hatred?
did Hitler turn this enthusiasm into hatred and create the Holocaust ?
Causing hatred amongst Germans
Don't want peace in Germany
No roots/ everywhere
Won't contribute to Germany's roots because they are international
What was he saying about the Jews ?
It was only a transitional point for the Germans.
But for the Jewish population, who believed it was their final destination, were falsely given hope by the Nazis.
During the Holocaust, ghettos were a central step in the Nazi process of control, dehumanization, and mass murder of the Jews.
The largest ghetto in Poland was the Warsaw ghetto, where more than 400,000 Jews were crowded into an area of 1.3 square miles.
This ghetto held the largest jewish resistance movement in the spring 1943.
This was in response to...
This is why they had to give them hope.
In 1941, the Nazi leadership decided to implement the "Final Solution," the systematic mass murder of European Jewry.
Trains were the most effective way for the Nazis to implement the "final solution"; once they had their killing camps ready.
When trains were not available or the distances were short, by truck or on foot.
Upon Arrival
Experiments done by scientist
Even before Hitler came to power in August of 1934 , he had already begun using his power.
The solution to exterminate the Jews was made by the Nazis and enforced in stages.
Ghettos were established
Mobile Killing Units
gassings, shootings, random acts of terror, disease, and starvation
And this was only just a start...
February 10, 1936 - The German Gestapo is placed above the law.
No respect, not even recognized as humans
Extermination Camps
Extermination camps were killing centers designed to carry out genocide.
6 Camps established:
Almost all of the deportees who arrived at the camps were sent immediately to death in the gas chambers.
After the Holocaust- Liberation
A number of German physicians conducted painful and often deadly experiments on thousands of concentration camp prisoners without their consent.

Three Categories:
1. The facilitating the survival of Axis military personnel
2. The developing and testing pharmaceuticals and treatment methods for injuries and illnesses which German military and occupation personnel encountered in the field.
3. Medical experimentation sought to advance the racial and ideological beliefs of the Nazi worldview.
Video:... http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_fi.php?ModuleId=10005250&MediaId=174
Hitler’s Hatred
1) Lebensraum --> to acquire more “living space” for the German population

“The aim of German policy was to make secure and to preserve the racial community and to enlarge it. It was therefore a question of space.” - Fuhrer quote from the Hossbach Conference - Berlin on Nov. 5th, 1937

2) Revenge on the Jews --> Jews were corrupting the purity of the German blood line so he wanted to get rid of them as revenge

"The Jewish youth lies in wait for hours on end.......spying on the unsuspicious German girl he plans to seduce..........He wants to contaminate her blood and remove her from the bosom of her own people. The Jew hates the white race and wants to lower its cultural level so that the Jews might dominate."
-Mein Kampf

Pre-existing hatred

Anti-Semitism Ideology
Black Death of the 14th century
blamed for supposedly poisoning wells and causing the plague
murdered for it
Different cultural and religious ways = apart from the German life = easy target for blame

"they found themselves living among primitive Western people who were repelled by their superior intelligence and their clever business acumen. There was mutual contempt and hate . . . the two peoples were living geographically alongside each other, but they were immersed in different cultural stages."

-Klaus Fischer

Hitler only succeeded in doing this by using the devastation of the following ;

Consequences of WWI:

Devastation of land, families, lives ...etc same as everywhere else

Consequences of the Great depression:

Unemployment, Poverty, Hunger, Homelessness

For the people

Hitler turned the anti-semitic ideology into an answer:
The Jews became the reason for Germany's downfall = hope
Associated with Marxism (Communism) and thus the fear of a worse society

Hitler built up Germany and its nationalism:
Fulfilled promises of more employment, better economy ..etc
Hitler became beloved savior from Jews
More nationalism= more hate for other nations
Jews became enemy of Germany's success
For Hitler

ace science:
Hitler believed the Jews to be a different race
a religion so he was less understanding and more brutal

When the Jewish community entered the European society and was successful he thought they were supposing to be above Germans

Consequences of the Treaty of Versailles:

lame = felt unjustified because others took part too

eparations = poverty to the extreme

rmy mostly removed = felt powerless against enemies

erritory reduction = felt trapped in specific land and couldn’t grow/succeed

Propaganda and Persuasive Speeches

Violence: (
Instilled Fear
1933-1939 - “internal enemies” led to the order of the death’s head inforced by the SS

Persecuted Jews, terrorized the Catholic and Protestant churches

Shattered socialist trade unions - public now had no say

Killed or imprisoned anyone who opposed his views

Censored their newspapers, radios, theatres, movies, and schools to promote the hatred of Jews
The End of the Holocaust
Nazi surrender coming soon
Soviet Red Army closing them in from East, the Allied Forces from direction of France.
Started shutting down camps in Poland Regions.
Hide evidence by:
death marches (line them up and shoot them down)
March jews from camp to camp
mass graves
cremate bodies
destroy gas chambers
Official surrender = May 7th, 1945
First rescue = late 1944 with Majdanek.
Came across Nazis bringing the Jews from camp to camp.
Concentration camps were considered top secret.
Special prisoners unit cremated the bodies
Camps were camouflaged
Many suffered or died from malnutrition, dehydration, disease and/or injuries (after they were rescued)
Numb from the experience
"I spent my days in a state of total idleness. And I had but one desire-to eat. I no longer thought of my father or of my mother. From time to time I would dream of a drop of soup, of an extra ration of soup" - Elie Wiesel
Did not think of revenge.
Terrified to start their life with nothing but a bad reputation.
"You don't know what it means to say 'I am Jewish'. For three years I heard those words day and night but never, not even when I was alone, did I dare say them aloud."
" But promise me one thing; that you will remain Ann-and not just the name. It will be better that way, believe me." -Ida Fink
Survivors Guilt
" I know of course; it's simply luck. That i've survived so many friends. But last night in a dream I heard those friends say to me: 'Survival of the fittest'. And I hated myself." -Bertolt Brecht (I, the Survivor)
Coming Home-the fear of Anti-semitism
Anti-semitism; the term used to describe the hatred of Jews.
In the Netherlands: Dutch expected gratitude but only got silence.
Get back stolen property and adopted children. this sparked Anti-Semitism.
Pogroms; anti-semitism riots
Pogroms popular the first couple of months back and then eased off.
Post War Poland: over 500 Jews killed in Pogroms.
Kielce 1946 incident; 42 Jews beaten to death
Children only knew danger, could not trust anyone.
Migrated westwards to the western allies
Housing in Refugee centers and Displaced Persons camps
Clothes and food by American Jewish Joint Distribution committee.
Vocational training lead by The Organization of Rehabilitation.
Refugee's wanted organization and Palestine (new name is Israel)
US limited entry.
Borders of Europe closed off to the homeless.
Jewish Brigade Group (of 1944) and partisan fighters -> formed....Brihan.
Brihan illegally ships immigrants from Europe to Palestine.
Unsuccessful. Caught by British and brought to detention camps on Mediterranean Island in Cyprus.
'Exodus 1947' : carried 4500 people on the path to Palestine. But got caught and sent back to Germany.
Israel establishment in 1948 allowed 170,000 Jewish displaced persons to immigrate there by 1953.
Remaining survivors immigrated to: Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Western Europe, Mexico, South America and South Africa.
War Criminals
Tens of thousands caught
1945-1949 a total of 31,651 war criminals brought to trial.
Thousands more got away.
Himmler and Georing suicide by cyanide capsule (suicide pill)
Nikolaus Barbie (experimented on Jews) died in prison in France.
Escaped by: name changing, immigration, establishing themselves in organizations..etc..
Witnesses and Survivors
Ignored or avoided
Couldn't talk about it.
1960s: when Jews published books and poems which got the public's attention.
1980s: media projects, organizations and committee's began sponsoring them.
The World wanted them to heal.
Moving On
going back to sites of the Holocaust
Never learn; Genocide in Darfur.
Rumor that it never happened.
" So for us even the hour of liberty rang out grave and muffled, and filled our souls with joy and yet a painful sense of shame...and also of anguish, because we felt that this should never happen, that now nothing could ever happen good and pure enough to rub out our past, and that the scars of the outrage would remain within us forever." - Primo Levi, The Truce
Propaganda praising Hitler for removing Jewish teachers from the education systems.
Fixed some things so he looked like he was building Germany up instead of tearing down Jews:
made Germany more independant

public works = more jobs

militarization = jobs in factories

In 1938, SS authorities had begun to exploit the labor of concentration camp prisoners for economic profit.
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