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learning and development depend on experience is a basic pri

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Devon Marcille

on 7 November 2016

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Transcript of learning and development depend on experience is a basic pri

Memory Stores
The memory stores in the human brain are made up of three parts: sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory. These repositories hold information in both raw and meaningful forms. Let's look into each of the three sections.

Sensory memory
Also called the sensory register, sensory memory is the information store that briefly holds incoming stimuli from the environment in a raw, unprocessed form until they can be meaningfully organized. Learning and development depend on experience, and we acquire these experiences through our sensory memories.
Sensory memory is nearly unlimited in capacity. However, if information is not immediately processed, the memory trace quickly fades away. Sensory memory retains information for about 1 second for visual information and 2 to 4 seconds for auditory

Working memory
Working memory is the conscious component of our memory system. It’s where our thinking occurs, and it’s where we try to make sense of our experiences by linking them to what we already know.
Working memory has three components—a central executive, a phonological loop, and a visual-spatial sketchpad—that work together to process information.
Adult working memories can hold about seven items of information at a time and can hold the items for only about 10 to 20 seconds.

Long-term memory
Long-term memory is our permanent information store. Being able to access this knowledge plays a huge role in learning.
Long-term memory’s capacity is vast and durable, and some experts suggest that information in it remains for a lifetime.
Long-term memory contains three kinds of knowledge: declarative, procedural, and conditional.
Model of Human Memory
Cognitive Processes
The cognitive processes of attention, perception, encoding, and retrieval are responsible for moving information from one information store to another.

Attention
Attention is the process of selectively focusing on one stimulus in the environment while ignoring others.
We use attention as a screen that allows us to focus on important stimuli and ignore others.
Less stimuli comes out of the attention screen than enters it.
Everyone’s attention is limited, both in capacity and duration.
Distractions take away from the attention of students and allows them to miss parts of lessons.
Multitasking has become an important process as technology has becomes a major part of everyday life. In the classroom, teachers and students must learn to appropriately switch our attention from one task to another and from one technology to another
Perception
Perception is the process people use to find meaning in stimuli.
Perception is influenced by our experiences, motivations, and expectations.
Encoding
To encode information means to represent it in long-term memory.
We encode information meaningfully by using schema activation (activate relevant prior knowledge), organization (impose order and connections in new information), elaboration (expand existing schemas), and imagery (form mental pictures of topics).
Retrieval
Retrieval is the process of pulling information from long-term memory back into working memory.
Retrieval depends on context and the way we originally encoded information.
Meaningfulness is the key to retrieval.
Practicing to the point of automaticity facilitates retrieval.
Interference can inhibit the process of retrieval. To prevent interference and aid retrieval, teachers should teach closely related ideas together.
An Introduction to Human Memory
Metacognition
Knowing about knowing!
Metacognition is knowledge and regulation of our cognition.
Meta-attention is the knowledge and regulation of our attention and it is one type of metacognition.
Metamemory is the knowledge and regulation of memory strategies and it is another form of metacognition.
Metacognition depends on task difficulty. When tasks are difficult, the cognitive load on working memory may be too great to allow effective metacognitive monitoring.
More sophisticated metacognition, such as using advanced encoding strategies like organization, elaboration, and imagery, often begin to appear in early adolescence, advance with age, and then level off in adulthood.
Here is an interesting TED Talk on how working memory makes sense of the world. One intriguing point Peter Doolittle brings up is how our limited working memory used to remember 7 things at a time, but now functional MRI's are showing that we can now only remember 4 things at a time. I wonder if the rise of modern technology and social media/apps has anything to do with this. Doolittle's conclusion is that human's need to think about our existence immediately and repeatedly, we need to think elaborately, we need to use imagery more often (use imagery to take notes, etc.), and we need organization and support. He ends with the quote, "What we process, we learn. If we are not processing life, we are not living it. Live life."
The model of the structure of human memory that most theorists can agree on has become a central part of what is called information processing theory. This theory describes how information enters our memory system, is organized, and is finally stored. This model of human memory helps us to visualize and understand how memory works. The human memory model is composed of three parts: memory stores, cognitive processes, and metacognition. This presentation will take a detailed look into each of these three parts in order to clarify what role the important aspect of memory plays in learning.
Summary
Sensory memory is the store that briefly holds stimuli from the environment until they can be processed.
Working memory is the conscious part of our information processing system, and its capacity is limited. The limitations of working memory help us understand why learners miss information in lectures and why we all periodically experience “memory overload.”
We accommodate the limitations of working memory by developing skills to automaticity, organizing and interconnecting information so that it behaves as large chunks, and distributing processing.
Long-term memory is our permanent information store, and it is where knowledge is stored until it is needed for further processing.
Information in long-term memory makes more sense to people and is more easily retrieved when it is meaningfully organized.
Attention and perception move information from sensory memory to working memory. Attention is the process of consciously focusing on a stimulus, and perception attaches meaning to a stimulus.
Learners use rehearsal to retain information in the phonological loop of working memory, and intensive rehearsal can move information into long-term memory.
Encoding represents information in long-term memory. Learners encode information more effectively if it is represented both visually and verbally.
Retrieval is the process of pulling information from long-term memory back into working memory for problem solving or further processing.
Students’ use of the cognitive processes improve as they develop, with older learners better focusing their attention and more effectively using strategies to promote meaningful encoding.
Metacognition is individuals’ knowledge of, and regulation of, their cognitive processes.
Metacognition influences learning by making learners aware of the way they study and learn, and providing strategies to increase learning.
Metacognition is developmental, with young children being less aware of their cognitive activities than their older counterparts.
By Devon Marcille
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