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Transcript of Physics
-Mallable Gray cast 2.5-4wt% carbon -graphite flakes -high resistance -damping viberations Nodular 3.5-2.5%silcon -tiny ball(nodules) -small of amounts Mg,Ce,Ca,Li,Na -higher strength(yield&tensile) -high ductility White low silicon less 1% -extremely hard -brittle -wear resistant -compressive strength -fracture white Malleable -heat up to 800-900 Celsius for long periods -breaks into graphite rosettes -surround by ferrite or pearlite Apply connect rods
marine and heavy duty services Apply piano board frames
machine tools Apply crank shafts
pumps Apply roll for steel making
stone and ore crushing
brick equipment Steel Low carbon
stainless steel Low Carbon <.25 wt Carbon -unresponsive to heat treatment -soft -weak -ductility -toughness -least expensive -weldable Medium Carbon .25- .6 wt Carbon -heat treatment if Cr, Ni, Mo -alloy strength ductility -stronger than Low Carbon High Carbon .6-1.4 wt Carbon -hardest -strongest -least ductile -wear resistance -capable of sharp edges Stainless Steel
Corrosion resistant Steel (CRES) -highly resistant to corrosion - common alloy= Chrome - 10.5 Chrome - Ni, Mo improves CRES Apply automobile body
sheets for pipes Apply gears
railway wheels Apply cutting tools
razor Apply Kitchen
missiles Martensitic 1.2% carbon
12-18% chrome heat treatment
magnetic Austenitic phase austenite
stable room tempture 14-27% Chrome Ferritic weak
stronger by cold work
not heat treatable Polymers small unit joined together either naturally or synthetically to produce polymers or macromolecules Definition Organic vs. Inorganic -composed with carbon and hydrogen -inorganic no carbon ex of inorganic= SiO2
ex of organic=C2H2 *polymer=organic Saturated Polymer -molecules that have all bonds being single with no new atoms may be joined without removal of other that already bonded Polyethylene
H H Polysterene
H * Unsaturated -molecules have double or triple covalent bonds each carbon is not bonded to the max 4 other atoms therefore it is possible for another atom group of atom to become attached to original molecule Ethylene H H
H H Adipic acid //O //O
H-C-(C2H2)-C-OH Metal Vs. Polymers elasticity-low 7MPa-4GPa
Ductility-Usually greater 100% elasticity-48-401 GPa
Ductility-less 100% Ceramics List of Facts Crystal structures made of Ionic bonds Stable when anion surrounds cation Types -Ax
-AmBnXp Ax-type -common -sub groups -Rock salt 6 nearest neighbor Ex: NaCl,MgO, FeO -Cesium chloride 8 nearest neighbor Ex: CsCl -Zinc blend 4 neareast neighbor Ex: Zns AmXp -charge on cations&anion not the same= a compound Ex: CaF2,ZrO2,UO2 AmBnXp -can have more than 2 cations Ex: BaTiO3 expensive
brittle Material Engineering Definition use of knowledge in order to develop prepare modify and apply materials to specific needs Material Science and engineering Definition Generation and application of knowledge relating the composition structure and processing of materials to their properties and uses Solute Definition substance present in the least proportion in a mixture Solvent Definition substance present in greatest proportion in mixture Mixture Definition material with no fixed composition and contains more than one phase -flakes