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Judaism and the Jewish People
Transcript of Judaism and the Jewish People
Judaism and the Jewish People
The Early Israelites
- Language - Hebrew
- Believed they were descendants of Abraham
- The first religion based on one God (monotheism).
- To escape famine, Jacob's family moved to Egypt where soon they become slaves.
- Pharaoh orders all Israelite boys thrown in the Nile
- One baby is found by the pharaoh's daughter (she names him Moses)
- Moses grew up in a royal house until he was discovered to be an Israelite
- God speaks to Moses from a Burning bush and tells him to free the Israelites from slavery
- the Pharaoh refuses to free the Hebrew people, so God sends 10 plagues to convince them
- Last plague (Passover) - all Egyptian first born sons are killed (including the Pharaoh's boy)
- This convinced the Pharaoh. He lets the Israelites go, but sends soldiers after them.
- Moses parted the Red sea and led the Israelites through the desert to reach the Promised Land.
- While traveling to Canaan, Moses went to the top of Mount Sinai and received laws from God.
The Ten Commandments
- The Ten Commandments helped form the basic moral laws for many nations.
The Promised Land
- It took the Israelites 40 years to reach the Promised Land (Canaan).
- When they arrived, they found a group of people living there called the Canaanites.
- Moses never lived to see it.
- Joshua became their new leader.
- so Joshua led them into battle.
- They conquered Canaan and divided the land among the 12 tribes
- After Joshua’s death, the Israelites looked to judges for leadership.
- This powerful group comes into Canaan, and the 12 tribes decide they need a king to unite them against the Philistines.
- The judges chose Saul, a warrior, to be Israel's first king
- David, a young shepard and musician is sent to fight in Saul's army
- He becomes the Israelite king
- While in the army - he becomes famous by defeating Philistine “giant” - Goliath
- Saul does not like this attention, so he makes David a general (hoping he dies)
- David runs away to the desert and Philistines attack
- United the 12 tribes
- Built a new capital city called Jerusalem
- Wrote many psalms
- Always remembered as the Israelites greatest king
- Kicked out the Philistines
- Built the Temple of Jerusalem
- He was known for his wise sayings, or proverbs.
- Not well liked
- After his death, the 12 tribes began fighting again and split apart into two kingdoms
The Fall of Israel
- Assyrians conquered and scattered the 10 tribes - became known as The “Lost Tribes of Israel”
Kingdom of Israel - 10 tribes - capital Samaria
Kingdom of Judah - 2 tribes - capital Jerusalem
- The Neo-Babylonians conquered Judah, yet Jews start many rebellions against them.
The Fall of Judah
- King Nebuchadnezzar punishes them by destroying the Temple of Jerusalem
- Nebuchadnezzar sent about 10,000 Jews to his capital in Babylon
- It lasts 70 years until the Persian king Cyrus lets them go back to Judah
The Babylonian Captivity
- The Romans conquered Judah and renamed it Judea.
The Jews and Romans
- Greek term describing Jews that didn’t live in Judah
- Were an army led by Judas Maccabeus to fight off the Greeks.
- They kicked the Greeks out of Judah and destroyed all the Greek statues from their temple.
- Each year during Hanukkah, the Jews recall the cleansing of the temple and the Maccabees victory.
- They destroyed the Temple of Jerusalem
- All that remains is the Western Wall
- The Romans forbid Jews from entering Jerusalem and renamed Judea to Palestine
Section 1 - The Origins of Judaism
- God tells Abraham to move from Ur to Canaan (The Promised Land) and makes a covenant with him
- Family Tree
The Time of the Judges
- It doesn't work, so King Saul plots to kill David
- They kept their culture, language, and religion
Greek and Roman Rule
- Jews revolted twice against the Romans, yet lost
- Influenced Christianity and Islam
- Beliefs are based on ethics
- Beliefs are found in the Torah
- He is known as their patriarch
- judges were military leaders